Thailand Population: 68,615,858


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A unified Thai kingdom was established in the mid-14th century. Known as Siam until 1939, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian country never to have been colonized by a European power. A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. After the Japanese invaded Thailand in 1941, the government split into a pro-Japan faction and a pro-Ally faction backed by the King. Following the war, Thailand became a US treaty ally in 1954 after sending troops to Korea and later fighting alongside the US in Vietnam. Thailand since 2005 has experienced several rounds of political turmoil including a military coup in 2006 that ousted then Prime Minister THAKSIN Chinnawat, followed by large-scale street protests by competing political factions in 2008, 2009, and 2010. THAKSIN's youngest sister, YINGLAK Chinnawat, in 2011 led the Puea Thai Party to an electoral win and assumed control of the government. In early May 2014, after months of large-scale anti-government protests in Bangkok beginning in November 2013, YINGLAK was removed from office by the Constitutional Court and in late May 2014 the Royal Thai Army, led by Royal Thai Army Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha, staged a coup against the caretaker government. PRAYUT was appointed prime minister in August 2014. PRAYUT also serves as the head of the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), a military-affiliated body that oversees the interim government. This body created several interim institutions to promote reform and draft a new constitution, which was passed in a national referendum in August 2016. In late 2017, PRAYUT announced elections would be held by November 2018; he has subsequently suggested they might occur in February 2019. As of mid-December 2018, a previoulsy held ban on campaigning and political activity has been lifted and per parliamentary laws, an election must be held within 150 days. King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet passed away in October 2016 after 70 years on the throne; his only son, WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, ascended the throne in December 2016. He signed the new constitution in April 2017. Thailand has also experienced violence associated with the ethno-nationalist insurgency in its southern Malay-Muslim majority provinces. Since January 2004, thousands have been killed and wounded in the insurgency.

    Controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore; ideas for the construction of a canal across the Kra Isthmus that would create a bypass to the Strait of Malacca and shorten shipping times around Asia continue to be discussed
Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 100 00 E
Area: total: 513,120 sq km
land: 510,890 sq km
water: 2,230 sq km

Size comparison: about three times the size of Florida; slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land Boundaries: total: 5,673 km border countries (4): Burma 2416 km, Cambodia 817 km, Laos 1845 km, Malaysia 595 km
Coastline: 3,219 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid
Terrain: central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere
Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 41.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 30.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 8.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1.6% (2011 est.) forest: 37.2% (2011 est.)
other: 21.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 64,150 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; water scarcity; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting; hazardous waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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Nationality: noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective: Thai
Ethnic groups: Thai 97.5%, Burmese 1.3%, other 1.1%, unspecified <.1% (2015 est.) note: data represent population by nationality
Languages: Thai (official) only 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages (includes Malay, Burmese) (2010 est.) note: data represent population by language(s) spoken at home; English is a secondary language of the elite
Religions: Buddhist 94.6%, Muslim 4.3%, Christian 1%, other (2015 est.)
Population: 68,615,858 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.73% (male 5,880,026 /female 5,598,611)
15-24 years: 13.83% (male 4,840,303 /female 4,649,589)
25-54 years: 46.12% (male 15,670,881 /female 15,972,254)
55-64 years: 12.35% (male 3,970,979 /female 4,503,647)
65 years and over: 10.97% (male 3,289,576 /female 4,239,992) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 40 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 25.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 14.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 6.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 38.1 years
male: 37 years
female: 39.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.29% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 49.9% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 10.156 million BANGKOK (capital)
1.272 million Samut Prakan
1.135 million Chiang Mai
940,000 Songkla
937,000 Nothaburi
889,000 Pathum Thani (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.3 years (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 20 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.1 years male: 71.9 years
female: 78.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 78.4% (2015/16)
Physicians density: 0.81 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 98% of population
total: 97.8% of population

urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 2% of population
total: 2.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 96.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 93% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 3.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 7% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 440,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 15,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 10% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6.7% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 92.9%
male: 94.7%
female: 91.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years female: 16 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.7% male: 3% female: 4.7% (2016 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form: Thailand
local long form: Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form: Prathet Thai
former: Siam
etymology: Land of the Tai [People]"; the meaning of "tai" is uncertain, but may originally have meant "human beings," "people," or "free people
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Bangkok
geographic coordinates: 13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 76 provinces (changwat, singular and plural) and 1 municipality* (maha nakhon); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buri Ram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep* (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Saraburi, Satun, Sing Buri, Si Sa Ket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon
Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
National holiday: Birthday of King WACHIRALONGKON, 28 July (1952)
Constitution: history: many previous; latest completed 29 March 2016, approved by referendum 7 August 2016, signed into law by the king 6 April 2017 amendments: proposed as a joint resolution by the Council of Ministers and the National Council for Peace and Order (the junta that has ruled Thailand since the 2014 coup) and submitted as a draft to the National Legislative Assembly; passage requires majority vote of the existing Assembly members and presentation to the monarch for assent and countersignature by the prime minister (2017)
Legal system: civil law system with common law influences
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: King WACHIRALONGKON Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun, also spelled Vajiralongkorn Bodindradebayavarangkun, (since 1 December 2016); note - King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946) died 13 October 2016

head of government: Prime Minister Gen. PRAYUT Chan-ocha (since 25 August 2014); Deputy Prime Ministers PRAWIT Wongsuwan, Gen. (since 31 August 2014), WISSANU Kruea-ngam (since 31 August 2014), SOMKHIT Chatusiphithak (since 20 August 2015), PRACHIN Chantong, Air Chief Mar. (since 20 August 2015), CHATCHAI Sarikanya (since 23 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the king; a Privy Council advises the king elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; the House of Representatives and Senate approves a person for Prime Minister who must then be appointed by the King (as stated in the transitory provision of the 2017 constitution); the office of prime minister can be held for up to a total of 8 years

note:   PRAYUT Chan-ocha was appointed interim prime minister in August 2014, three months after he staged the coup that removed the previously elected government of Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat; on 5 June 2019 PRAYUT (independent) was approved as prime minister by the parliament - 498 votes to 244 for THANATHON Chuengrungrueangkit (FFP)
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Assembly or Rathhasapha consists of: Senate or Wuthissapha (250 seats; members appointed by the Royal Thai Army to serve 5-year terms) House of Representatives or Saphaphuthan Ratsadon (500 seats; 375 members elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 150 members elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2019 (next to be held in 2024) House of Representatives - last held on 24 March 2019 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 224, women 26, percent of women 10.4% House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PPRP 23.7%, PTP 22.2%, FFP 17.8%, DP 11.1%, PJT 10.5%, TLP 2.3%, CTP 2.2%, NEP 1.4%, PCC 1.4%, ACT 1.2%, PCP 1.2%,  other 5.1%; seats by party - PTP 136, PPRP 116, FFP 81, DP 53, PJT 51, CTP 10, TLP 10, PCC 7, PCP 5, NEP 6, ACT 5, other 20; composition - men 421, women 79, percent of women 15.8%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 14%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice presidents, 60-70 judges, and organized into 10 divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (number of judges determined by Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judge term determined by the monarch; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court, and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judges serve for life

subordinate courts: courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts
Political parties and leaders: Action Coalition of Thailand Party or ACT [CHATUMONGKHON Sonakun] Anakhot Mai Party (Future Forward Party) or FFP [THANATHON Chuengrungrueangkit] Chat Phatthana Party (National Development Party) [THEWAN Liptaphanlop] Chat Thai Phatthana Party (Thai Nation Development Party) or CTP [KANCHANA Sinlapa-acha] New Economics Party or NEP [MINGKHWAN Sangsuwan] Phalang Pracharat Party or PPP [UTTAMA Sawanayon] Phumchai Thai Party (Thai Pride Party) or PJT [ANUTHIN Chanwirakun] Prachachat Party of PCC [WAN Muhamad NOOR Matha] Prachathipat Party (Democrat Party) or DP [CHURIN Laksanawisit] Puea Chat Party (For Nation Party) or PCP [SONGKHRAM Kitletpairot] Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [WIROT Paoin] Puea Tham Party (For Dharma Party) [NALINI Thawisin] Seri Ruam Thai Party (Thai Liberal Party) or TLP [SERIPHISUT Temiyawet] Thai Forest Conservation Party or TFCP [DAMRONG Phidet] Thai Local Power Party or TLP [collective leadership] Thai Raksa Chat Party (Thai National Preservation Party) [PRICHAPHON Phongpanit] note: as of 5 April 2018, 98 new parties applied to be registered with the Election Commission in accordance with the provisions of the new organic law on political parties
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure), elephant;
national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem: name: "Phleng Chat Thai" (National Anthem of Thailand)

note: music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; "Phleng Sanlasoen Phra Barami" (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wirachai PLASAI (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-3600
FAX: [1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Peter HAMMOND (since October 2018)
embassy: 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address: APO AP 96546
telephone: [66] 2 205-4000
FAX: [66] 2-205-4306
consulate(s) general: Chiang Mai
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With a relatively well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, and generally pro-investment policies, Thailand is highly dependent on international trade, with exports accounting for about two-thirds of GDP. Thailand’s exports include electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. The industry and service sectors produce about 90% of GDP. The agricultural sector, comprised mostly of small-scale farms, contributes only 10% of GDP but employs about one-third of the labor force. Thailand has attracted an estimated 3.0-4.5 million migrant workers, mostly from neighboring countries. Over the last few decades, Thailand has reduced poverty substantially. In 2013, the Thai Government implemented a nationwide 300 baht (roughly $10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. Thailand’s economy is recovering from slow growth during the years since the 2014 coup. Thailand’s economic fundamentals are sound, with low inflation, low unemployment, and reasonable public and external debt levels. Tourism and government spending - mostly on infrastructure and short-term stimulus measures – have helped to boost the economy, and The Bank of Thailand has been supportive, with several interest rate reductions. Over the longer-term, household debt levels, political uncertainty, and an aging population pose risks to growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.236 trillion (2017 est.) $1.19 trillion (2016 est.) $1.152 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $455.4 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2017 est.) 3.3% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,900 (2017 est.) $17,200 (2016 est.) $16,700 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 34.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 32.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.3% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 48.8% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 68.2% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -54.6% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.) industry: 36.2% (2017 est.) services: 55.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, palm oil, pineapple, livestock, fish products
Industries: tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts, agricultural machinery, air conditioning and refrigeration, ceramics, aluminum, chemical, environmental management, glass, granite and marble, leather, machinery and metal work, petrochemical, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, printing, pulp and paper, rubber, sugar, rice, fishing, cassava, world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer
Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 38.37 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.8%
industry: 16.7%
services: 51.5% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 0.7% (2017 est.) 0.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 7.2% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 31.5% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 44.5 (2015) 48.4 (2011)
Budget: revenues: 69.23 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 85.12 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 41.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 41.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.7% (2017 est.) 0.2% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $51.08 billion (2017 est.) $48.24 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $235.1 billion (2017 est.) $214.3 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: automobiles and parts, computer and parts, jewelry and precious stones, polymers of ethylene in primary forms, refine fuels, electronic integrated circuits, chemical products, rice, fish products, rubber products, sugar, cassava, poultry, machinery and parts, iron and steel and their products
Exports - partners: China 12.4%, US 11.2%, Japan 9.5%, Hong Kong 5.2%, Vietnam 4.9%, Australia 4.5%, Malaysia 4.4% (2017)
Imports: $203.2 billion (2017 est.) $177.7 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and parts, crude oil, electrical machinery and parts, chemicals, iron & steel and product, electronic integrated circuit, automobile’s parts, jewelry including silver bars and gold, computers and parts, electrical household appliances, soybean, soybean meal, wheat, cotton, dairy products
Imports - partners: China 20%, Japan 14.5%, US 6.8%, Malaysia 5.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $202.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $171.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $132 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $130.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $227.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $193.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $117.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $96.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $348.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $430.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $354.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: baht per US dollar - 34.34 (2017 est.) 35.296 (2016 est.) 35.296 (2015 est.) 34.248 (2014 est.) 32.48 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 181.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 187.7 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 2.267 billion kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 19.83 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 44.89 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 76% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 239,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 790 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 875,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 349.4 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.328 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.326 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 278,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 134,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 38.59 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 52.64 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 14.41 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 193.4 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 355 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 121.53 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 178 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok; mobile and mobile broadband penetration are on the increase; Fibre-to-the-home (FttH) has seen strong growth in the major cities; 4G TD-LTE and moving to 5G trials; seven smart cities with the hope of 100 smart cities within its borders in the next two decades; one of the biggest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia (2018)

domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 178 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2017)
Broadcast media: 26 digital TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally, 6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the stations are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2017)
Internet country code: .th
Internet users: total: 32,398,778
percent of population: 47.5% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 101 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 63
(2013) over 3,047 m: 8 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 14 (2013)
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 38
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2013)
under 914 m: 26 (2013)
Heliports: 7 (2013)
Pipelines: 2 km condensate, 5900 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1 km oil, 1097 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 4,127 km
(2017) standard gauge: 84 km 1.435-m gauge (84 km electrified) (2017)
narrow gauge: 4,043 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadways: total 180,053 km
(includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)
Waterways: 4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 807

by type: bulk carrier 27, container ship 25, general cargo 91, oil tanker 241, other 423 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha container port(s) (TEUs): Laem Chabang (7,227,431) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): Map Ta Phut
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Military branches: Royal Thai Armed Forces (Kongthap Thai, RTARF): Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Akaat Thai, RTAF) (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation based on lottery (2018)
Military expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (2017) 1.45% of GDP (2016) 1.44% of GDP (2015) 1.41% of GDP (2014) 1.4% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011, Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; approximately 100,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 97,603 (Burma) (2018)
stateless persons: 478,883 (2018) (estimate represents stateless persons registered with the Thai Government; actual number may be as high as 3.5 million); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving note: Thai nationality was granted to more than 23,000 stateless persons between 2012 and 2016; in 2016, the Government of Thailand approved changes to its citizenship laws that could make 80,000 stateless persons eligible for citizenship, as part of its effort to achieve zero statelessness by 2024 (2018)
Illicit drugs: a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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