Northern Mariana Islands Population: 51,994


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Under US administration as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific, the people of the Northern Mariana Islands decided in the 1970s not to seek independence but instead to forge closer links with the US. Negotiations for territorial status began in 1972. A covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the US was approved in 1975, and came into force on 24 March 1976. A new government and constitution went into effect in 1978.

    Strategic location in the North Pacific Ocean
Location: Oceania, islands in the North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines
Geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E
Area: total: 464 sq km
land: 464 sq km
water: 0 sq km

note: consists of 14 islands including Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 1,482 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October
Terrain: the southern islands in this north-south trending archipelago are limestone, with fringing coral reefs; the northern islands are volcanic, with active volcanoes on several islands
Natural resources: arable land, fish
Land use: agricultural land: 6.6% (2011 est.) arable land: 2.2% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 2.2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 2.2% (2011 est.) forest: 65.5% (2011 est.)
other: 27.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: active volcanoes on Pagan and Agrihan; typhoons (especially August to November)
Current Environment Issues: contamination of groundwater on Saipan may contribute to disease; clean-up of landfill; protection of endangered species conflicts with development
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Nationality: noun: n/a(US citizens)
adjective: NA
Ethnic groups: Asian 50% (includes Filipino 35.3%, Chinese 6.8%, Korean 4.2%, and other Asian 3.7%), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 34.9% (includes Chamorro 23.9%, Carolinian 4.6%, and other Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 6.4%), other 2.5%, two or more ethnicities or races 12.7% (2010 est.)
Languages: Philippine languages 32.8%, Chamorro (official) 24.1%, English (official) 17%, other Pacific island languages 10.1%, Chinese 6.8%, other Asian languages 7.3%, other 1.9% (2010 est.)
Religions: Christian (Roman Catholic majority, although traditional beliefs and taboos may still be found)
Population: 51,994 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.17% (male 7,355 /female 6,252)
15-24 years: 15.71% (male 4,365 /female 3,804)
25-54 years: 39.14% (male 10,545 /female 9,805)
55-64 years: 13% (male 3,701 /female 3,057)
65 years and over: 5.98% (male 1,672 /female 1,438) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 33.4 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 34.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.52% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 14.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -15.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 91.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.29% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 51,000 SAIPAN (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.17 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.21 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.16 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.6 years male: 73.6 years
female: 78.1 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.76 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 0.36 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 97.5% of population
total: 97.5% of population

urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 2.5% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 79.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 79.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 79.7% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 20.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 20.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 20.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: n/a
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Country name: conventional long form: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
conventional short form: Northern Mariana Islands
former: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Mariana Islands District
abbreviation: CNMI
etymology: formally claimed and named by Spain in 1667 in honor of the Spanish Queen, MARIANA of Austria
Government type: presidential democracy; a commonwealth in political union with the US
Capital: name: Saipan
geographic coordinates: 15 12 N, 145 45 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth in political union with the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 municipalities at the second order: Northern Islands, Rota, Saipan, Tinian
Independence: none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)
Constitution: history: partially effective 9 January 1978 (Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); fully effective 4 November 1986 (Covenant Agreement) amendments: proposed by constitutional convention, by public petition, or by the Legislature; ratification of proposed amendments requires approval by voters at the next general election or special election; amendments proposed by constitutional convention or by petition become effective if approved by a majority of voters and at least two-thirds majority of voters in each of two senatorial districts; amendments proposed by the Legislature are effective if approved by majority vote; amended several times, last in 2012 (2017)
Legal system: US system applies, except for customs and some aspects of taxation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note - indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Donald J. TRUMP (since 20 January 2017); Vice President Michael R. PENCE (since 20 January 2017)

head of government: Governor Ralph TORRES (since 29 December 2015); Lieutenant Governor Victor HOCOG (since 29 December 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected on the same ballot by an Electoral College of 'electors' chosen from each state; president and vice president serve a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); under the US Constitution, residents of the Northern Mariana Islands do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; however, they may vote in Democratic and Republican party presidential primary elections; governor directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; election last held on 13 November 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Ralph TORRES elected governor; percent of vote - Ralph TORRES (Republican) 62.2%, Juan BABAUTA (Independent) 37.8%;  Arnold PALACIOS elected Lieutenant Governor
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Northern Marianas Commonwealth Legislature consists of: Senate (9 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) House of Representatives (20 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 2-year terms) the Northern Mariana Islands directly elects 1 delegate to the US House of Representatives by simple majority vote to serve a 2-year term

elections: CNMI Senate - last held on 8 November 2016 (next to be held in November 2020) CNMI House of Representatives - last held on 13 November 2018 (next to be held in November 2020) Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands delegate to the US House of Representatives  - last held on 13 November 2018 (next to be held in November 2020)

election results: CNMI Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 6, independent 3; composition - men 8, women 1, percent of women 11.1% CNMI House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Republican Party 13, independent 7; composition - men 17, women 3, percent of women 15%; note - total CNMI Legislature percent of women 13.8% delegate to US House of Representatives - seat won by Democratic Party; composition - 1 man note: the Northern Mariana Islands delegate to the US House of Representatives can vote when serving on a committee and when the House meets as the "Committee of the Whole House" but not when legislation is submitted for a “full floor” House vote
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) (consists of the chief justice and 2 associate justices); US Federal District Court (consists of 1 judge); note - US Federal District Court jurisdiction limited to US federal laws; appeals beyond the CNMI Supreme Court are referred to the US Supreme Court judge selection and term of office: CNMI Supreme Court judges appointed by the governor and confirmed by the CNMI Senate; judges appointed for 8-year terms and another term if directly elected in a popular election; US Federal District Court judges appointed by the US president and confirmed by the US Senate; judges appointed for renewable 10-year terms

subordinate courts: Superior Court
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party [Daniel QUITUGUA] Republican Party [James ADA]
International organization participation: PIF (observer), SPC, UPU
National symbol(s): latte stone;
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi" (In the Middle of the Sea)
lyrics/music: Jose S. PANGELINAN [Chamoru], David PETER [Carolinian]/Wilhelm GANZHORN

note: adopted 1996; the Carolinian version of the song is known as "Satil Matawal Pacifico;" as a commonwealth of the US, in addition to the local anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner" is official (see United States)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Diplomatic representation from the US:
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The economy of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands(CNMI) has been on the rebound in the last few years, mainly on the strength of its tourism industry. In 2016, the CNMI’s real GDP increased 28.6% over the previous year, following two years of relatively rapid growth in 2014 and 2015. Chinese and Korean tourists have supplanted Japanese tourists in the last few years. The Commonwealth is making a concerted effort to broaden its tourism by extending casino gambling from the small Islands of Tinian and Rota to the main Island of Saipan, its political and commercial center. Investment is concentrated on hotels and casinos in Saipan, the CNMI’s largest island and home to about 90% of its population. Federal grants have also contributed to economic growth and stability. In 2016, federal grants amounted to $101.4 billion which made up 26% of the CNMI government’s total revenues. A small agriculture sector consists of cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Legislation is pending in the US Congress to extend the transition period to allow foreign workers to work in the CNMI on temporary visas.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.242 billion (2016 est.) $933 million (2015 est.) $845 million (2014 est.)

note: GDP estimate includes US subsidy; data are in 2013 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.242 billion (2016 est.) (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 28.6% (2016 est.) 3.8% (2015 est.) 3.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $24,500 (2016 est.) $18,400 (2015 est.) $16,600 (2014 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 43.1% (2016 est.) government consumption: 28.9% (2016 est.) investment in fixed capital: 26.3% (2016 est.) investment in inventories: n/a (2016 est.) exports of goods and services: 73.6% (2016 est.) imports of goods and services: -71.9% (2016 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.7% (2016) industry: 58.1% (2016 est.) services: 40.2% (2016)
Agriculture - products: vegetables and melons, fruits and nuts; ornamental plants; livestock, poultry, eggs; fish and aquaculture products
Industries: tourism, banking, construction, fishing, handicrafts, other services
Industrial production growth rate: n/a
Labor force: 27,970 (2010 est.) note: includes foreign workers
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 10%
services: 88.1% (2010 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.2% (2010 est.) 8% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 389.6 million (2016 est.)
expenditures: 344 million (2015 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31.4% (of GDP) (2016 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 3.7% (of GDP) (2016 est.)
Public debt: 7.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (2016 est.) 0.1% (2015 est.)
Exports: $914 million (2016 est.) $520 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: garments
Imports: $893 million (2016 est.) $638 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, construction equipment and materials, petroleum products
Debt - external: n/a
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
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Electricity - production: 60,600 kWh (2009)
Electricity - consumption: 48,300 kWh (2009)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (January 2009 est.)
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Telephone system: general assessment: digital fiber-optic cables and satellites connect the islands to worldwide networks; future launch of 5G (2018)

domestic: wide variety of services available including dial-up and broadband Internet, mobile cellular, international private lines, payphones, phone cards, voicemail, and automatic call distribution systems (2018)

international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media: 1 TV broadcast station on Saipan; multi-channel cable TV services are available on Saipan; 9 licensed radio broadcast stations (2009)
Internet country code: .mp
Internet users: total: 16,000
percent of population: 30.6% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 5 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 536 km
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: other 1 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saipan, Tinian, Rota
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Defense is the responsibility of the US
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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