Mongolia Population: 6 million


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The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia declared its independence from the Manchu-led Qing Empire in 1911 and achieved limited autonomy until 1919, when it again came under Chinese control. The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 ended Chinese dominance, and a communist regime, the Mongolian People’s Republic, took power in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia, represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; today, more ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Since the country's peaceful democratic revolution in 1990, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) - which took the name Mongolian People’s Party (MPP) in 2010 - has competed for political power with the Democratic Party (DP) and several other smaller parties, including a new party formed by former President ENKHBAYAR, which confusingly adopted for itself the MPRP name. In the country's most recent parliamentary elections in June 2016, Mongolians handed the MPP overwhelming control of Parliament, largely pushing out the DP, which had overseen a sharp decline in Mongolia’s economy during its control of Parliament in the preceding years. Mongolians elected a DP member, Khaltmaa BATTULGA, as president in 2017.

    Landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Area: total: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 8,082 km border countries (2): China 4630 km, Russia 3452 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use: agricultural land: 73% (2011 est.) arable land: 0.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 72.6% (2011 est.) forest: 7% (2011 est.)
other: 20% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: dust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws leads to air pollution in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation and overgrazing increase soil erosion from wind and rain; water pollution; desertification and mining activities have a deleterious effect on the environment
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups: Khalkh 84.5%, Kazak 3.9%, Dorvod 2.4%, Bayad 1.7%, Buryat-Bouriates 1.3%, Zakhchin 1%, other 5.2% (2015 est.)
Languages: Mongolian 90% (official) (Khalkha dialect is predominant), Turkic, Russian (1999)
Religions: Buddhist 53%, Muslim 3%, Shamanist 2.9%, Christian 2.2%, other 0.4%, none 38.6% (2010 est.)
Population: 3,103,428 (July 2018 est.) note: Mongolia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world (2 people per sq km); twice as many ethnic Mongols (some 6 million) live in Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) in neighboring China
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27% (male 427,225 /female 410,579)
15-24 years: 15.67% (male 246,198 /female 240,040)
25-54 years: 45.49% (male 683,475 /female 728,149)
55-64 years: 7.43% (male 105,085 /female 125,502)
65 years and over: 4.42% (male 55,447 /female 81,728) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 48.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 42.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 17.3 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.8 years
male: 28 years
female: 29.6 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.11% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 18.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 68.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.63% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.52 million ULAANBAATAR (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.5 years (2008 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 20-24
Maternal mortality rate: 44 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 20.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 23.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.2 years male: 66 years
female: 74.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.6% (2013)
Physicians density: 2.89 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 59.2% of population
total: 64.4% of population

urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 40.8% of population
total: 35.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 66.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 42.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 59.7% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 33.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 57.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 40.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: <1000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 20.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.9% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 98.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 98.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years female: 16 years (2015)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 17.9% male: 15% female: 22.6% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic
etymology: the name means "Land of the Mongols" in Latin; the Mongolian name Mongol Uls translates as "Mongol State"
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September

note: Mongolia has two time zones - Ulaanbaatar Time (8 hours in advance of UTC) and Hovd Time (7 hours in advance of UTC)
etymology: the name means "red hero" in Mongolian and honors national hero Damdin Sukhbaatar, leader of the partisan army that with Soviet Red Army help, liberated Mongolia from Chinese occupation in the early 1920s
Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan (Zavkhan), Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence: 29 December 1911 (independence declared from China; in actuality, autonomy attained); 11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday: Naadam (games) holiday (commemorates independence from China in the 1921 Revolution), 11-15 July Constitution Day (marks the date that the Mongolian People's Republic was created under a new constitution), 26 November (1924)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992 amendments: proposed by the State Great Hural, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition submitted to the State Great Hural by the Constitutional Court; conducting referenda on proposed amendments requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the State Great Hural; passage of amendments by the State Great Hural requires at least three-quarters majority vote; passage by referendum requires majority participation of qualified voters and a majority of votes; amended 1999, 2000 (2019)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Soviet and Romano-Germanic legal systems; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Khaltmaa BATTULGA (since 10 July 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH (since 4 October 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Ulziisaikhan ENKHTUVSHIN (since 18 October 2017); note - Prime Minister Jargaltulga ERDENEBAT (since 8 July 2016) was voted out of office by the Parliament on 7 September 2017

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president, confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament) elections/appointments: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in the State Great Hural and directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 June 2017 with a runoff held 7 July 2017 (next to be held in 2021); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural

election results: Khaltmaa BATTULGA elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA (DP) 38.1%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD (MPP) 30.3%, Sainkhuu GANBAATAR (MPRP) 30.2%, invalid 1.4%; percent of vote in second round - Khaltmaa BATTULGA 55.2%, Miyegombo ENKHBOLD 44.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral State Great Hural or Ulsyn Ikh Khural (76 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; each constituency requires at least 50% voter participation for the poll to be valid; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 June 2016 (next to be held in June 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPP 45.1%, DP 33.1%, MPRP 8.0%, independent 4.8%, other 9.0%; seats by party - MPP 65, DP 9, MPRP 1, independent 1; composition - men 63, women 13, percent of women 17.1%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the Chief Justice and 24 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tsets (consists of the chairman and 8 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice and judges appointed by the president upon recommendation by the General Council of Courts - a 14-member body of judges and judicial officials - to the State Great Hural; appointment is for life; chairman of the Constitutional Court elected from among its members; members appointed from nominations by the State Great Hural - 3 each by the president, the State Great Hural, and the Supreme Court; appointment is 6 years; chairmanship limited to a single renewable 3-year term

subordinate courts: aimag (provincial) and capital city appellate courts; soum, inter-soum, and district courts; Administrative Cases Courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [Sodnomzundui ERDENE] Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Bayanjargal TSOGTGEREL] Mongolian People's Party or MPP [Ukhnaa KHURELSUKH] Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR]
National symbol(s): soyombo emblem;
national colors: red, blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Mongol ulsyn toriin duulal" (National Anthem of Mongolia)
lyrics/music: Tsendiin DAMDINSUREN/Bilegiin DAMDINSUREN and Luvsanjamts MURJORJ

note: music adopted 1950, lyrics adopted 2006; lyrics altered on numerous occasions
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Yondon OTGONBAYAR (since 28 March 2018)
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael S. KLECHESKI (since 22 February 2019)
embassy: Denver Street #3, 11th Micro-District, Big Ring Road, Ulaanbaatar, 14190 Mongolia
mailing address: P.O. Box 341, Ulaanbaatar 14192
telephone: [976] 7007-6001
FAX: [976] 7007-6016
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Foreign direct investment in Mongolia's extractive industries – which are based on extensive deposits of copper, gold, coal, molybdenum, fluorspar, uranium, tin, and tungsten - has transformed Mongolia's landlocked economy from its traditional dependence on herding and agriculture. Exports now account for more than 40% of GDP. Mongolia depends on China for more than 60% of its external trade - China receives some 90% of Mongolia's exports and supplies Mongolia with more than one-third of its imports. Mongolia also relies on Russia for 90% of its energy supplies, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad, particularly in South Korea, are significant. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession, because of political inaction, and natural disasters, as well as strong economic growth, because of market reforms and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. The country opened a fledgling stock exchange in 1991. Mongolia joined the WTO in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade regimes. Growth averaged nearly 9% per year in 2004-08 largely because of high copper prices globally and new gold production. By late 2008, Mongolia was hit by the global financial crisis and Mongolia's real economy contracted 1.3% in 2009. In early 2009, the IMF reached a $236 million Stand-by Arrangement with Mongolia and it emerged from the crisis with a stronger banking sector and better fiscal management. In October 2009, Mongolia passed long-awaited legislation on an investment agreement to develop the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) mine, among the world's largest untapped copper-gold deposits. However, a dispute with foreign investors developing OT called into question the attractiveness of Mongolia as a destination for foreign investment. This caused a severe drop in FDI, and a slowing economy, leading to the dismissal of Prime Minister Norovyn ALTANKHUYAG in November 2014. The economy had grown more than 10% per year between 2011 and 2013 - largely on the strength of commodity exports and high government spending - before slowing to 7.8% in 2014, and falling to the 2% level in 2015. Growth rebounded from a brief 1.6% contraction in the third quarter of 2016 to 5.8% during the first three quarters of 2017, largely due to rising commodity prices. The May 2015 agreement with Rio Tinto to restart the OT mine and the subsequent $4.4 billion finance package signing in December 2015 stemmed the loss of investor confidence. The current government has made restoring investor trust and reviving the economy its top priority, but has failed to invigorate the economy in the face of the large drop-off in foreign direct investment, mounting external debt, and a sizeable budget deficit. Mongolia secured a $5.5 billion financial assistance package from the IMF and a host of international creditors in May 2017, which is expected to improve Mongolia’s long-term fiscal and economic stability as long as Ulaanbaatar can advance the agreement’s difficult contingent reforms, such as consolidating the government’s off-balance sheet liabilities and rehabilitating the Mongolian banking sector.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $39.73 billion (2017 est.) $37.81 billion (2016 est.) $37.38 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $11.14 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2017 est.) 1.2% (2016 est.) 2.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,000 (2017 est.) $12,500 (2016 est.) $12,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 26.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 23.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 22.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 49.2% (2017 est.) government consumption: 12.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 12.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 59.5% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -57.1% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 12.1% (2017 est.) industry: 38.2% (2017 est.) services: 49.7% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industries: construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate: -1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 1.241 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.1%
industry: 18.5%
services: 50.5% (2016)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2017 est.) 7.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29.6% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 13.7%
highest 10%: 5.7% (2017)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34 (2017) 36.5 (2008)
Budget: revenues: 2.967 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 3.681 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 91.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 90% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (2017 est.) 0.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.155 billion (2017 est.) -$700 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $5.834 billion (2017 est.) $4.916 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals, coal, crude oil
Exports - partners: China 85%, UK 10.7% (2017)
Imports: $4.345 billion (2017 est.) $3.466 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, cigarettes and tobacco, appliances, soap and detergent
Imports - partners: China 32.6%, Russia 28.1%, Japan 8.4%, US 4.8%, South Korea 4.6% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.016 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.296 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $25.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $24.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $18.02 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $16.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $495 million (31 December 2017 est.) $455.2 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $632.6 million (31 December 2015 est.) $766.1 million (31 December 2014 est.) $1.095 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: togrog/tugriks (MNT) per US dollar - 2,378.1 (2017 est.) 2,140.3 (2016 est.) 2,140.3 (2015 est.) 1,970.3 (2014 est.) 1,817.9 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 5.339 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.932 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 51 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.446 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.134 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 20,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,360 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: n/abbl (1 January 2017)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 24,190 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 19.86 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 3,886,167
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services; compared to other Asian countries, Mongolia's growth in telecommunications is moderate; mobile broadband is growing with 4 competitive MNOs (mobile network operators) along with better tarrifs; 3G mobile broadband products are very popular with 4G services by 2022; in May 2018 a South Korean company completed the sale of 40% stake back to Mongolian government (2018)

domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity 10 per 100; there are four mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing with 131 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2016)
Broadcast media: following a law passed in 2005, Mongolia's state-run radio and TV provider converted to a public service provider; also available are 68 radio and 160 TV stations, including multi-channel satellite and cable TV providers; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2019)
Internet country code: .mn
Internet users: total: 674,949
percent of population: 22.3% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 44 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 15
(2017) over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 29
(2013) over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 1,815 km
(2017) broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.520-m gauge (2017)

note: national operator Ulaanbaatar Railway is jointly owned by the Mongolian Government and by the Russian State Railway
Roadways: total 113,200 km
(2017) paved: 10,600 km (2017)
unpaved: 102,600 km (2017)
Waterways: 580 km (the only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol) (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers ice free from May to September) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 265

by type: bulk carrier 4, container ship 3, general cargo 107, oil tanker 68, other 83 (2018)
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Military branches: Mongolian Armed Forces (Mongol ulsyn zevsegt huchin): Mongolian Army, Mongolian Air Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 1-year conscript service obligation in army or air forces or police for males only; after conscription, soldiers can contract into military service for 2 or 4 years; citizens can also voluntarily join the armed forces (2017)
Military expenditures: 0.68% of GDP (2018) 0.72% of GDP (2017) 0.92% of GDP (2016) 0.87% of GDP (2015) 0.86% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 17 (2018)
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