Lebanon Population: 6,100,075


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Following World War I, France acquired a mandate over the northern portion of the former Ottoman Empire province of Syria. The French demarcated the region of Lebanon in 1920 and granted this area independence in 1943. Since independence, the country has been marked by periods of political turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on its position as a regional center for finance and trade. The country's 1975-90 civil war, which resulted in an estimated 120,000 fatalities, was followed by years of social and political instability. Sectarianism is a key element of Lebanese political life. Neighboring Syria has historically influenced Lebanon's foreign policy and internal policies, and its military occupied Lebanon from 1976 until 2005. The Lebanon-based Hizballah militia and Israel continued attacks and counterattacks against each other after Syria's withdrawal, and fought a brief war in 2006. Lebanon's borders with Syria and Israel remain unresolved.

    Smallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E
Area: total: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km

Size comparison: about one-third the size of Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 484 km border countries (2): Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km
Coastline: 225 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrain: narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 63.3% (2011 est.) arable land: 11.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 12.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 39.1% (2011 est.) forest: 13.4% (2011 est.)
other: 23.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,040 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; dust storms, sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil deterioration, erosion; desertification; species loss; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills; waste-water management
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Lebanese
Ethnic groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1% note: many Christian Lebanese do not identify themselves as Arab but rather as descendants of the ancient Canaanites and prefer to be called Phoenicians
Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Religions: Muslim 57.7% (28.7% Sunni, 28.4% Shia, smaller percentages of Alawites and Ismailis), Christian 36.2% (Maronite Catholics are the largest Christian group), Druze 5.2%, very small numbers of Jews, Baha'is, Buddhists, and Hindus (2017 est.)

note: data represent the religious affiliation of the citizen population (data do not include Lebanon's sizable Syrian and Palestinian refugee populations) ; 18 religious sects recognized
Population: 6,100,075 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.32% (male 728,025 /female 694,453)
15-24 years: 16.04% (male 500,592 /female 477,784)
25-54 years: 45.27% (male 1,398,087 /female 1,363,386)
55-64 years: 8.34% (male 241,206 /female 267,747)
65 years and over: 7.03% (male 185,780 /female 243,015) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 35.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 12 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8.3 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 31.3 years
male: 30.7 years
female: 31.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -3.13% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 14.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -40.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 88.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.75% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.385 million BEIRUT (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.9 years male: 76.6 years
female: 79.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.5% (2009)
Physicians density: 2.27 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 2.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99% of population

urban: 1% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 80.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 80.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 80.7% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 19.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 19.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 19.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,200 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 32% (2016)
Education expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 93.9%
male: 96%
female: 91.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 12 years female: 11 years (2014)
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Country name: conventional long form: Lebanese Republic
conventional short form: Lebanon
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah
local short form: Lubnan
former: Greater Lebanon
etymology: derives from the Semitic root "lbn" meaning "white" and refers to snow-capped Mount Lebanon
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Beirut
geographic coordinates: 33 52 N, 35 30 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: derived from the Canaanite or Phoenician word "ber'ot," meaning "the wells" or "fountain," which referred to the site's accessible water table
Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Aakkar, Baalbek-Hermel, Beqaa (Bekaa), Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord (North Lebanon), Liban-Sud (South Lebanon), Mont-Liban (Mount Lebanon), Nabatiye
Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)
Constitution: history: drafted 15 May 1926, adopted 23 May 1926 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic and introduced as a government bill to the National Assembly or proposed by at least 10 members of the Assembly and agreed upon by two-thirds of its members; if proposed by the National Assembly, review and approval by two-thirds majority of the Cabinet is required; if approved, the proposal is next submitted to the Cabinet for drafting as an amendment; Cabinet approval requires at least two-thirds majority, followed by submission to the National Assembly for discussion and vote; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of a required two-thirds quorum of the Assembly membership and promulgation by the president; amended several times, last in 2004 (2019)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law based on the French civil code, Ottoman legal tradition, and religious laws covering personal status, marriage, divorce, and other family relations of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian communities
Suffrage: 21 years of age; authorized for all men and women regardless of religion; excludes persons convicted of felonies and other crimes or those imprisoned; excludes all military and security service personnel regardless of rank
Executive branch: chief of state: President Michel AWN (since 31 October 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Saad al-HARIRI (since 24 May 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Ghassan HASBANI (since 18 December 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president and National Assembly elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds majority vote in the first round and if needed absolute majority vote in a second round for a 6-year term (eligible for non-consecutive terms); last held on 31 October 2016 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president in consultation with the National Assembly; deputy prime minister determined during cabinet formation

election results: Michel AWN elected president in second round; National Assembly vote - Michel AWN (FPM) 83; note - in the initial election held on 23 April 2014, no candidate received the required two-thirds vote, and subsequent attempts failed because the Assembly lacked the necessary quorum to hold a vote; the president was finally elected in its 46th attempt on 31 October 2016
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-Nuwab in Arabic or Assemblee Nationale in French (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); in 2017, the Assembly changed the electoral system from majoritarian to proporional representation

elections: last held on 6 May 2018 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: percent of vote by coalition - NA; seats by coalition – Strong Lebanon Bloc (Free Patriotic Movement-led) 25; Future Bloc (Future Movement-led) 20; Development and Liberation Bloc (Amal Movement-led) 16; Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc (Hizballah-led) 15; Strong Republic Bloc (Lebanese Forces-led) 15; Democratic Gathering (Progressive Socialist Party-led) 9; Independent Centre Bloc (Mikati-led) 4; National Bloc (Marada Movement-led) 3; Syrian Social Nationalist Party 3; Tashnaq 3; Kata’ib 3; other 8; independent 4;  composition - men 122, women 6, percent of women 4.6% note: Lebanon’s constitution states the National Assembly cannot conduct regular business until it elects a president when the position is vacant
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (organized into 8 chambers, each with a presiding judge and 2 associate judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 10 members) judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by Supreme Judicial Council, a 10-member body headed by the chief justice, and includes other judicial officials; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the Council of Ministers and 5 by parliament; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; specialized tribunals, religious courts; military courts
Political parties and leaders: Al-Ahbash or Association of Islamic Charitable Projects [Adnan TARABULSI] Amal Movement [Nabih BERRI] Azm Movement [Najib MIQATI] Ba’th Arab Socialist Party of Lebanon [Fayiz SHUKR] Free Patriotic Movement or FPM [Gibran BASSIL] Future Movement Bloc [Sa'ad al-HARIRI] Hizballah [Hassan NASRALLAH] Islamic Actions Front [Sheikh Zuhayr al-JU’AYD] Kata'ib Party [Sami GEMAYEL] Lebanese Democratic Party [Talal ARSLAN] Lebanese Forces or LF [Samir JA'JA] Marada Movement [Sulayman FRANJIEH] Progressive Socialist Party or PSP [Walid JUNBLATT] Social Democrat Hunshaqian Party [Sabuh KALPAKIAN]Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSO] Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Hanna al-NASHIF] Tashnaq or Armenian Revolutionary Federation [Hagop PAKRADOUNIAN]
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): cedar tree;
national colors: red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Kulluna lil-watan" (All Of Us, For Our Country!)
lyrics/music: Rachid NAKHLE/Wadih SABRA

note: adopted 1927; chosen following a nationwide competition
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel ISSA (since 24 January 2018)
chancery: 2560 28th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6300
FAX: [1] (202) 939-6324
consulate(s) general: Detroit, New York, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth H. RICHARD (since 17 May 2016)
embassy: Awkar, Lebanon (Awkar facing the Municipality), Main Street
mailing address: P. O. Box 70-840, Antelias, Lebanon; from US: US Embassy Beirut, 6070 Beirut Place, Washington, DC 20521-6070
telephone: [961] (4) 542600, 543600
FAX: [961] (4) 544136
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Lebanon has a free-market economy and a strong laissez-faire commercial tradition. The government does not restrict foreign investment; however, the investment climate suffers from red tape, corruption, arbitrary licensing decisions, complex customs procedures, high taxes, tariffs, and fees, archaic legislation, and inadequate intellectual property rights protection. The Lebanese economy is service-oriented; main growth sectors include banking and tourism. The 1975-90 civil war seriously damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, cut national output by half, and derailed Lebanon's position as a Middle Eastern banking hub. Following the civil war, Lebanon rebuilt much of its war-torn physical and financial infrastructure by borrowing heavily, mostly from domestic banks, which saddled the government with a huge debt burden. Pledges of economic and financial reforms made at separate international donor conferences during the 2000s have mostly gone unfulfilled, including those made during the Paris III Donor Conference in 2007, following the July 2006 war. The "CEDRE" investment event hosted by France in April 2018 again rallied the international community to assist Lebanon with concessional financing and some grants for capital infrastructure improvements, conditioned upon long-delayed structural economic reforms in fiscal management, electricity tariffs, and transparent public procurement, among many others. The Syria conflict cut off one of Lebanon's major markets and a transport corridor through the Levant. The influx of nearly one million registered and an estimated 300,000 unregistered Syrian refugees has increased social tensions and heightened competition for low-skill jobs and public services. Lebanon continues to face several long-term structural weaknesses that predate the Syria crisis, notably, weak infrastructure, poor service delivery, institutionalized corruption, and bureaucratic over-regulation. Chronic fiscal deficits have increased Lebanon’s debt-to-GDP ratio, the third highest in the world; most of the debt is held internally by Lebanese banks. These factors combined to slow economic growth to the 1-2% range in 2011-17, after four years of averaging 8% growth. Weak economic growth limits tax revenues, while the largest government expenditures remain debt servicing, salaries for government workers, and transfers to the electricity sector. These limitations constrain other government spending, limiting its ability to invest in necessary infrastructure improvements, such as water, electricity, and transportation. In early 2018, the Lebanese government signed long-awaited contract agreements with an international consortium for petroleum exploration and production as part of the country’s first offshore licensing round. Exploration is expected to begin in 2019.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $88.25 billion (2017 est.) $86.94 billion (2016 est.) $85.45 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $54.18 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2017 est.) 1.7% (2016 est.) 0.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $19,600 (2017 est.) $19,500 (2016 est.) $19,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: -0.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 0.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 4.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 87.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 21.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 23.6% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -46.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 3.9% (2017 est.) industry: 13.1% (2017 est.) services: 83% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats
Industries: banking, tourism, real estate and construction, food processing, wine, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating
Industrial production growth rate: -21.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.166 million (2016 est.) note: excludes as many as 1 million foreign workers and refugees
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39% n/a (2009 est.)
industry: n/a
services: n/a
Unemployment rate: 9.7% (2007)
Population below poverty line: 28.6% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 11.62 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 15.38 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 146.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 145.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover central government debt and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2017 est.) -0.8% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$12.37 billion (2017 est.) -$11.18 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $3.524 billion (2017 est.) $3.689 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: jewelry, base metals, chemicals, consumer goods, fruit and vegetables, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper
Exports - partners: China 13%, UAE 9.9%, South Africa 7.5%, Saudi Arabia 6.5%, Syria 6.5%, Iraq 5.8%, Turkey 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $18.34 billion (2017 est.) $17.71 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 10.2%, Italy 8.9%, Greece 7%, Germany 6.6%, US 6.3%, Turkey 4.5%, Egypt 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $55.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $54.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $39.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $36.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $61.02 billion (2016) $58.46 billion (2015)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $13.46 billion (2016) $12.69 billion (2015)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $11.22 billion (30 December 2014 est.) $10.54 billion (30 December 2013 est.) $10.42 billion (28 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LBP) per US dollar - 1,507.5 (2017 est.) 1,507.5 (2016 est.) 1,507.5 (2015 est.) 1,507.5 (2014 est.) 1,507.5 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 17.59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 15.71 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 69 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.346 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 88% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 154,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 151,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 23.36 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 4,890,534
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 79 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: new landlines and fiber-optic networks installed along with faster DSL in 2017; two mobile-cellular networks provide good service, with 4G LTE services; preparing for 5G service; future improvements to fiber-optic infrastructure for total nation coverage in 2020 (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 17 per 100 and 79 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)

international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria
Broadcast media: 7 TV stations, 1 of which is state owned; more than 30 radio stations, 1 of which is state owned; satellite and cable TV services available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible through partner stations (2019)
Internet country code: .lb
Internet users: total: 4,747,542
percent of population: 76.1% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
(2017) over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 88 km gas (2013)
Railways: total 401 km
(2017) standard gauge: 319 km 1.435-m gauge (2017)
narrow gauge: 82 km 1.050-m gauge (2017)

note: rail system is still unusable due to damage sustained from fighting in the 1980s and in 2006
Roadways: total 21,705 km
Merchant marine: total 55

by type: bulk carrier 1, container ship 1, general cargo 40, oil tanker 1, other 12 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Beirut, Tripoli container port(s) (TEUs): Beirut (1,305,038) (2017)
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Military branches: Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF): Lebanese Army (Al Jaysh al Lubnani), Lebanese Navy (Al Quwwat al Bahiriyya al Lubnaniya), Lebanese Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Lubnaniya) (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-24 years of age for officer candidates; no conscription (2013)
Military expenditures: 2.91% of GDP (2017) 2.96% of GDP (2016) 2.79% of GDP (2015)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Lebanon-Syria boundary are unclear with several sections in dispute; since 2000, Lebanon has claimed Shab'a Farms area in the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights; the roughly 2,000-strong UN Interim Force in Lebanon has been in place since 1978
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 926,717 (Syria), 475,075 (Palestinian refugees) (2019) IDPs: 11,000 (2007 Lebanese security forces' destruction of Palestinian refugee camp) (2018)
stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - tens of thousands of persons are stateless in Lebanon, including many Palestinian refugees and their descendants, Syrian Kurds denaturalized in Syria in 1962, children born to Lebanese women married to foreign or stateless men; most babies born to Syrian refugees, and Lebanese children whose births are unregistered
Illicit drugs: Lebanon is a transit country for hashish, cocaine, heroin, and fenethylene; fenethylene, cannabis, hashish, and some opium are produced in the Bekaa Valley; small amounts of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin transit country on way to European markets and for Middle Eastern consumption; money laundering of drug proceeds fuels concern that extremists are benefiting from drug trafficking
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