Indonesia Population: 262,787,403


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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.

    According to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

  • Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
  • despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon
Location: Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates: 5 00 S, 120 00 E
Area: total: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 2,958 km border countries (3): Malaysia 1881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km
Coastline: 54,716 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Natural resources: petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use: agricultural land: 31.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 13% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 12.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 6.1% (2011 est.) forest: 51.7% (2011 est.)
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 67,220 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"
Current Environment Issues: large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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Nationality: noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups: Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Languages: Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese) note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia
Religions: Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Population: 262,787,403 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.63% (male 32,967,727 /female 31,757,882)
15-24 years: 16.94% (male 22,661,264 /female 21,852,006)
25-54 years: 42.44% (male 57,097,131 /female 54,433,239)
55-64 years: 8.73% (male 10,447,365 /female 12,494,036)
65 years and over: 7.26% (male 8,326,858 /female 10,749,895) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 49.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 41.6 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 13.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.5 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 31.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.83% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 15.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 55.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 10.517 million JAKARTA (capital)
3.159 million Bekasi
2.903 million Surabaya
2.538 million Bandung
2.285 million Medan
2.222 million Tangerang (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.8 years (2012 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 126 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 25.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.2 years male: 70.6 years
female: 76 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.08 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61% (2016/17)
Physicians density: 0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 1.2 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 94.2% of population
rural: 79.5% of population
total: 87.4% of population

urban: 5.8% of population
rural: 20.5% of population
total: 12.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 72.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 47.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 60.8% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 27.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 52.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 39.2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 630,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 39,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 19.9% (2013)
Education expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 95.4%
male: 97.2%
female: 93.6% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years female: 13 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.6% male: 15.6% female: 15.6% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: Indonesia has three time zones
etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"
Administrative divisions: 31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
Independence: 17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Constitution: history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959 amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly when at least two-thirds of its members are present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002 (2017)
Legal system: civil law system based on the Roman-Dutch model and influenced by customary law
Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch: chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Jusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019

election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55%, PRABOWO Subianto (GERINDRA) 44.5%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of: Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (132 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 33 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (560 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Regional Representative Council - last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held on 17 April 2019) House of Representatives - last held on 9 April 2014 (next to be held on 17 April 2019)

election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19%, Golkar 14.8%, Gerindra 11.8%, PD 10.2%, PKB 9%, PAN 2.6%, PKS 6.8%, NasDem 6.7%, PPP 6.5%, Hanura 5.3%, other 7.3%; seats by party - PDI-P 109, Golkar 91, Gerindra 73, PD 61, PAN 48, PKB 47, PKS 40, PPP 39, NasDem 36, Hanura 16; composition - men 463, women 97, percent of women 27.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO] Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO] Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo] Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri] National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR] National Democratic Party (Partai Nasional Demokrat) or NasDem [Surya PALOH] National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN] People's Conscience Party or HANURA [Oesman Sapta ODANG] Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN] United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY]
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): garuda (mythical bird);
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

note: adopted 1945
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahendra SIREGAR (since 8 April 2019)
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph R. DONOVAN, Jr. (since 12 January 2017)
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 5083-1000 (2018)
FAX: [62] (21) 2395-1697 (2018)
consulate(s) general: Surabaya consulate(s): Medan
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Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade. Poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions are still part of Indonesia’s economic landscape. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.25 trillion (2017 est.) $3.093 trillion (2016 est.) $2.945 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.015 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.1% (2017 est.) 5% (2016 est.) 4.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $12,400 (2017 est.) $12,000 (2016 est.) $11,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 31.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 32% of GDP (2016 est.) 32% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.) government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.) industry: 41% (2017 est.) services: 45.4% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Industries: petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 4.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 125 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%
industry: 21%
services: 47% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.4% (2017 est.) 5.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 10.9% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2009) 39.4 (2005)
Budget: revenues: 131.7 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 159.6 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 13% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 28.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2017 est.) 3.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$17.33 billion (2017 est.) -$16.95 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $168.9 billion (2017 est.) $144.4 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
Exports - partners: China 13.6%, US 10.6%, Japan 10.5%, India 8.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Malaysia 5.1%, South Korea 4.8% (2017)
Imports: $150.1 billion (2017 est.) $129.2 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 23.2%, Singapore 10.9%, Japan 10%, Thailand 6%, Malaysia 5.6%, South Korea 5.3%, US 5.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $130.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
Debt - external: $344.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $251.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $229.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $20.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $18.42 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $523.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $426 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $353.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 13,385 (2017 est.) 13,308.3 (2016 est.) 13,308.3 (2015 est.) 13,389.4 (2014 est.) 11,865.2 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 235.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 213.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2017 est.)
Electricity - imports: 693 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 61.43 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 85% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 801,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 302,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 498,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 3.31 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 950,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.601 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 79,930 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 591,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 72.09 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 42.32 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 29.78 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.866 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 540.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 458,923,202
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 176 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good; Indonesia has very low fixed line and fixed broadband penetration, high mobile penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 175 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2018)

international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Broadcast media: mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)
Internet country code: .id
Internet users: total: 65,525,226
percent of population: 25.4% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 673 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 186
(2017) over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 72 (2017)
under 914 m: 37 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 487
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 23 (2013)
under 914 m: 460 (2013)
Heliports: 76 (2013)
Pipelines: 1064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)
Railways: total 8,159 km
narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)

note: 4,816 km operational
Roadways: total 496,607 km
(2011) paved: 283,102 km (2011)
unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
Waterways: 21,579 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 9,053

by type: bulk carrier 97, container ship 205, general cargo 2203, oil tanker 567, other 5981 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,553,370), Tanjung Priok (6,090,000) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
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Military branches: Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Komando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.84% of GDP (2017) 0.88% of GDP (2016) 0.89% of GDP (2015) 0.78% of GDP (2014) 0.92% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,098 (Afghanistan) (2018) IDPs: 16,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2012 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2018)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers
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