Aland Islands Population: 5,537,364


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Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.

    Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E
Area: total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 2,563 km border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1309 km
Coastline: 1,250 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Natural resources: timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land use: agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.) arable land: 7.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0.1% (2011 est.) forest: 72.9% (2011 est.)
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 690 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: severe winters in the north
Current Environment Issues: limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups: Finn, Swede, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami
Languages: Finnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)
Religions: Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)
Population: 5,537,364 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.44% (male 465,298 /female 445,186)
15-24 years: 11.21% (male 317,500 /female 303,326)
25-54 years: 37.64% (male 1,064,751 /female 1,019,748)
55-64 years: 13.19% (male 359,434 /female 370,993)
65 years and over: 21.51% (male 519,775 /female 671,353) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 57.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 25.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 32 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 3.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 42.6 years
male: 41 years
female: 44.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.33% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 10.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 85.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.279 million HELSINKI (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.8 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.1 years male: 78.1 years
female: 84.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 85.5% (2015) note: percent of women aged 18-49
Physicians density: 3.81 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 4.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 88% of population (2015 est.)
total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)

urban: 0.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 12% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.2% (2016)
Education expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 19 years male: 19 years female: 20 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20.1% male: 20.9% female: 19.3% (2017 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish "helsing," an archaic name for "neck" ("hals"), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; "fors" refers to "rapids," so "helsing fors" meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"
Administrative divisions: 19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Constitution: history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the Swedish model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Antti RINNE (since 6 June 2019); note - date when he was approved by parliament

cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament

election results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party/coalition - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, Aland Coalition 1; composition men 107, women 93, percent of women 46.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
Political parties and leaders: Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands) Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA] Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH] Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO] Green League or Vihr [Pekka HAAVISTO] Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]] National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE] Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): lion;
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert "Bob" Frank PENCE (since 24 May 2018) (2018)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 6162-50
FAX: [358] (9) 6162-5135
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Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment. Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years. Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $244.9 billion (2017 est.) $238.2 billion (2016 est.) $232.4 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $252.8 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2017 est.) 2.5% (2016 est.) 0.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $44,500 (2017 est.) $43,400 (2016 est.) $42,500 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 23.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 21.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 20% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.) government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.) industry: 28.2% (2017 est.) services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Industries: metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.473 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 4%
industry: 20.7%
services: 75.3% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.5% (2017 est.) 8.8% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 6.7%
highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 27.2 (2016) 22.2 (1995)
Budget: revenues: 134.2 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 135.6 billion (2017 est.)

note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting
Taxes and other revenues: 53.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 61.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.8% (2017 est.) 0.4% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $1.806 billion (2017 est.) -$819 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $67.73 billion (2017 est.) $51.9 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
Exports - partners: Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)
Imports: $65.26 billion (2017 est.) $58.18 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners: Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $10.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $11.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $150.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $147.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $135.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $84.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $185.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $116.7 billion (2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $231 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $207.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $208.7 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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Electricity - production: 66.54 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 82.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 3.159 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 22.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 16.27 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 236,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 217,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: n/acu m (1 January 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 46.01 million Mt (2017 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 7,307,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 132 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system with excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; forefront in testing 5G networks; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies (2018)

domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line 7 per 100 subscription; 132 per 100 mobile-cellular; network, and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs (2018)

international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Broadcast media: a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio
Internet country code: .finote - Aland Islands assigned .ax
Internet users: total: 4,822,132
percent of population: 87.7% (July 2016 est.)
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Airports: 148 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 74
(2017) over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (2017)
under 914 m: 14 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 71 (2013)
Pipelines: 1288 km gas transmission pipes, 1976 km distribution pipes (2016)
Railways: total 5,926 km
(2016) broad gauge: 5,926 km 1.524-m gauge (3,270 km electrified) (2016)
Roadways: total 454,000 km
(2012) highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) (2012) private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012) urban: 26,000 km (2012)
Waterways: 8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
Merchant marine: total 259

by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 1, general cargo 88, oil tanker 4, other 159 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
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Military branches: Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat, includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2016)
Military service age and obligation: all Finnish men are called-up for military service the year they turn 18; at 18, women may volunteer for military service; service obligation 6-12 months; individuals enter the reserve upon completing their initial obligation; military obligation to age 60 (2016)
Military expenditures: 1.29% of GDP (2019) 1.23% of GDP (2018) 1.26% of GDP (2017) 1.31% of GDP (2016) 1.29% of GDP (2015)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 8,523 (Iraq) (2018)
stateless persons: 2,759 (2018)
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