Samoa Population: 201,316

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 History
New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997. In the late 2000s, Samoa began making efforts to more closely align with Australia and New Zealand. In 2009, Samoa changed its driving orientation to the left side of the road, in line with other Commonwealth countries. In 2011, Samoa jumped forward one day - skipping December 30 - by moving to the west of the International Date Line so that it was one hour ahead of New Zealand and three hours ahead of the east coast of Australia, rather than 23 and 21 hours behind, respectively.

 Geography
    Occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 13 35 S, 172 20 W
Area: total: 2,831 sq km
land: 2,821 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 403 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
Terrain: two main islands (Savaii, Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rugged mountains in interior
Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 12.4% (2011 est.) arable land: 2.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 7.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1.8% (2011 est.) forest: 60.4% (2011 est.)
other: 27.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional cyclones; active volcanism volcanism: Savai'I Island (1,858 m), which last erupted in 1911, is historically active
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Samoan(s)
adjective: Samoan
Ethnic groups: Samoan 96%, Samoan/New Zealander 2%, other 1.9% (2011 est.) note: data represent the population by country of citizenship
Languages: Samoan (Polynesian) (official) 91.1%, Somoan/English 6.7%, English (official) 0.5%, other 0.2%, unspecified 1.6% (2006 est.)
Religions: Protestant 52.6% (Congregationalist 29%, Methodist 12.4%, Assembly of God 6.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4.4%), Roman Catholic 18.8%, Mormon 16.9%, Worship Centre 2.8%, other Christian 6.3%, other Protestant 2.4%, other 2.4% (includes Baha'i, Muslim), none 0.2% (2016 est.)
Population: 201,316 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 30.67% (male 31,862 /female 29,875)
15-24 years: 19.76% (male 20,413 /female 19,357)
25-54 years: 36.68% (male 37,944 /female 35,893)
55-64 years: 7.05% (male 7,223 /female 6,973)
65 years and over: 5.85% (male 5,126 /female 6,650) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 74.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 64.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 9.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 10.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24.8 years
male: 24.5 years
female: 25.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.61% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 20.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -8.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 18.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 36,000 APIA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.6 years (2009 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 51 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 18 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.2 years male: 71.3 years
female: 77.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 26.9% (2014)
Physicians density: 0.34 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 91.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 91.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 47.3% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.2% (2014)
Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 31.9% male: 24.6% female: 43.4% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa
conventional short form: Samoa
local long form: Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa
local short form: Samoa
former: Western Samoa
etymology: the name "Samoa" is composed of two parts, "sa" meaning sacred and "moa" meaning center, so the name can mean Holy Center; alternatively, it can mean "place of the sacred moa bird" of Polynesian mythology
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Apia
geographic coordinates: 13 49 S, 171 46 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
etymology: name derives from the native village around which the capital was constructed in the 1850s; the village still exists within the larger modern capital
Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship, but it is observed in June
Constitution: history: several previous (preindependence); latest 1 January 1962 amendments: proposed as an act by the Legislative Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly membership in the third reading - provided at least 90 days have elapsed since the second reading, and assent to by the chief of state; passage of amendments affecting constitutional articles on customary land or constitutional amendment procedures also requires at least two-thirds majority approval in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2015 (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi II (since 21 July 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi (since 23 November 1998); Deputy Prime Minister FIAME Naomi Mata’afa (since 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice elections/appointments: chief of state indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a 5-year term (2- term limit); election last held on 4 July 2017 (next to be held in 2022); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state, approved by the Legislative Assembly

election results: TUIMALEALI'IFANO Va’aletoa Sualauvi unanimously elected by the Legislative Assembly on 5 July 2017
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (50 seats for 2016-2021 term); members from 49 single-seat constituencies directly elected by simple majority vote and 1 seat for a woman, added for the 2016 election to meet the mandated 10% representation of women in the Assembly; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: election last held on 4 March 2016 (next election to be held no later than March 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - HRPP 89.8%, Tautua Samoa 4.1%, independent 6.1%; seats by party – initial election results - HRPP 44, Tautua Samoa 2, independents 3; post-election party affiliation – HRPP 47, (informal) opposition 3; composition - men 45, women 5, percent of women 10%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and 2 Supreme Court judges and meets once or twice a year); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and several judges) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the chief of state upon the advice of the prime minister; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the Judicial Service Commission, a 3-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes the attorney general and an appointee of the Minister of Justice; judges normally serve until retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: District Court; Magistrates' Courts; Land and Titles Courts; village fono or village chief councils
Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [TUILA'EPA Sailele Malielegaoi]
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Southern Cross constellation (five, five-pointed stars);
national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem: name: "O le Fu'a o le Sa'olotoga o Samoa" (The Banner of Freedom)
lyrics/music: Sauni Liga KURESA

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Samoa Tula'i" (Samoa Arise)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aliioaiga Feturi ELISAIA (since 4 December 2003)
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400J, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196 through 6197
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797
consulate(s) general: Pago Pago (American Samoa)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the US Ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Samoa
embassy: Accident Corporation Building, 5th Floor, Matafele, Apia
mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Matafele, Apia
telephone: [685] 21-631 (2018)
FAX: [685] 22-030 (2018)
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 Economy
The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, tourism, agriculture, and fishing. It has a nominal GDP of $844 million. Agriculture, including fishing, furnishes 90% of exports, featuring fish, coconut oil, nonu products, and taro. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Industry accounts for nearly 22% of GDP while employing less than 6% of the work force. The service sector accounts for nearly two-thirds of GDP and employs approximately 50% of the labor force. Tourism is an expanding sector accounting for 25% of GDP; 132,000 tourists visited the islands in 2013. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. In September 2009, an earthquake and the resulting tsunami severely damaged Samoa and nearby American Samoa, disrupting transportation and power generation, and resulting in about 200 deaths. In December 2012, extensive flooding and wind damage from Tropical Cyclone Evan killed four people, displaced over 6,000, and damaged or destroyed an estimated 1,500 homes on Samoa's Upolu Island. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the country's financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline, while at the same time protecting the environment. Foreign reserves are relatively healthy and inflation is low, but external debt is approximately 45% of GDP. Samoa became the 155th member of the WTO in May 2012, and graduated from least developed country status in January 2014.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.137 billion (2017 est.) $1.11 billion (2016 est.) $1.036 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $841 million (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2017 est.) 7.1% (2016 est.) 1.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,700 (2017 est.) $5,700 (2016 est.) $5,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: n/a government consumption: n/a investment in fixed capital: n/a investment in inventories: n/a exports of goods and services: 27.2% (2015 est.) imports of goods and services: -50.5% (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 10.4% (2017 est.) industry: 23.6% (2017 est.) services: 66% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coconuts, nonu, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa
Industries: food processing, building materials, auto parts
Industrial production growth rate: -1.8% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 50,700 (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65%
industry: 6%
services: 29% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.2% (2017 est.) 5.5% (2016 est.) n/a
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 237.3 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 276.8 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -4.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 49.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 52.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: June 1 - May 31
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2017 est.) 0.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$19 million (2017 est.) -$37 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $27.5 million (2014 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, coconut oil and cream, nonu, copra, taro, automotive parts, garments, beer
Exports - partners: Australia 22.9%, NZ 22.8%, American Samoa 22.1%, Afghanistan 14.9%, US 5.9% (2017)
Imports: $89.29 billion (2018 est.) $312.6 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: NZ 22%, Singapore 20.7%, US 12.5%, China 10.1%, Australia 8.6%, Fiji 5.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $133 million (31 December 2017 est.) $122.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $447.2 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: tala (SAT) per US dollar - 2.566 (2017 est.) 2.565 (2016 est.) 2.565 (2015 est.) 2.5609 (2014 est.) 2.3318 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 132 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 122.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 45,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,400 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,363 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 341,100 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 124,211
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: most households have at least one mobile phone; all businesses in the greater Apia area have access to broadband and Wi-Fi, which is reasonably reliable and fast; in rural Upolu and on Savaii Island there is now readily available  high-speed Internet and Wi-Fi; due to the establishment of a regulatory infrastructure, liberalization and competition of the mobile market the telecom market has increased coverage and reduced cost; 4G LTE services accessible to about 95% of residents (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 62 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); Tui Samoa Cable, connected to the Southern Cross Cable via Fiji is the primary connection servicing Samoa
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station privatized in 2008; 4 privately owned television broadcast stations; about a half-dozen privately owned radio stations and one state-owned radio station; TV and radio broadcasts of several stations from American Samoa are available (2019)
Internet country code: .ws
Internet users: total: 58,508
percent of population: 29.4% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3
(2013)
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Roadways:
Merchant marine: total 13

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 2, other 7 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Apia
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 Military
Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship
Military branches: no regular military forces; Samoa Police Force
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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