Uganda Population: 38,319,241


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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences complicated the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. A constitutional referendum in 2005 cancelled a 19-year ban on multi-party politics and lifted presidential term limits.

Landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
Location: East-Central Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 1 00 N, 32 00 E
Area: total: 241,038 sq km
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,729 km border countries (5): Democratic Republic of the Congo 877 km, Kenya 814 km, Rwanda 172 km, South Sudan 475 km, Tanzania 391 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
Land use: agricultural land: 71.2% arable land 34.3%; permanent crops 11.3%; permanent pasture 25.6% forest: 14.5%
other: 14.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 140 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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Nationality: noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups: Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Languages: English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Religions: Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Population: 38,319,241 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.26% (male 9,223,926/female 9,268,714)
15-24 years: 21.13% (male 4,010,464/female 4,087,350)
25-54 years: 26.1% (male 5,005,264/female 4,997,907)
55-64 years: 2.5% (male 460,000/female 496,399)
65 years and over: 2.01% (male 337,787/female 431,430) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 102.3%
youth dependency ratio: 97.3%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 15.7 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 15.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.22% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 43.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 16.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.43% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KAMPALA (capital) 1.936 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 343 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 57.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 66.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.4 years male: 54 years
female: 56.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 30% (2011)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.12 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density: 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 79% of population

urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 21% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 28.5% of population
rural: 17.3% of population
total: 19.1% of population

urban: 71.5% of population
rural: 82.7% of population
total: 80.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 7.07% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,461,700 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 28,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.1% (2011)
Education expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.4%
male: 85.3%
female: 71.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 2.6% male: 2%
female: 3.2% (2013 est.)
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Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
etymology: from the Swahili "Buganda," adopted by the British as the name for their East African colony in 1894; Buganda had been a powerful East African state during the 18th and 19th centuries
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 33 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 111 districts and 1 capital city*; Abim, Adjumani, Agago, Alebtong, Amolatar, Amudat, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Buhweju, Buikwe, Bukedea, Bukomansimbi, Bukwa, Bulambuli, Buliisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Butambala, Buvuma, Buyende, Dokolo, Gomba, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kalungu, Kampala*, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibaale, Kiboga, Kibuku, Kiruhura, Kiryandongo, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kole, Kotido, Kumi, Kween, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, Lamwo, Lira, Luuka, Luwero, Lwengo, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mitooma, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namayingo, Namutumba, Napak, Nebbi, Ngora, Ntoroko, Ntungamo, Nwoya, Otuke, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rubirizi, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Serere, Sheema, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe, Zombo; note - four new districts, Kagadi, Kakumiro, Omoro, and Rubanda, have been reported, but not yet vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence: 9 October 1962 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011); Prime Minister Ruhakana RUGUNDA (since 19 September 2014); First Deputy Prime Minister Moses ALI (since 6 June 2016); Second Deputy Prime Minister Kirunda KIVEJINJA (since 6 June 2016))

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected members of the National Assembly or persons who qualify to be elected as members of the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limit); election last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)

election results: Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI reelected president; percent of vote - Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (NRM) 60.6%, Kizza BESIGYE (FDC) 35.6%, other 3.8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (427 seats; 290 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 112 for women directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 25 "representatives" reserved for special interest groups - army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5; there are 13 ex-officio members appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 18 February 2016 (next to be held in February 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Uganda (consists of the chief justice and at least 10 justices) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president of the republic in consultation with the Judicial Service Commission (a 9-member independent advisory body) and approved by the National Assembly; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal (also sits as the Constitutional Court); High Court (includes 12 High Court Circuits and 8 High Court Divisions); Industrial Court; Chief Magistrate Grade One and Grade Two Courts throughout the country; qadhis courts ; local council courts; family and children courts
Political parties and leaders: Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI] Democratic Party or DP [Norbert MAO] Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Mugisha MUNTU] Justice Forum or JEEMA [Asuman BASALIRWA] National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI] Uganda People's Congress or UPC [James AKENA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON] Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): grey crowned crane; national colors: black, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA

note: adopted 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Oliver WONEKHA (since 6 June 2013)
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambsssador Deborah R. MALAC (since 27 February 2016)
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P.O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 259-794
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Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing one third of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Uganda’s economy remains predominantly agricultural with a small industrial sector that is dependent on imported inputs like oil and equipment. Overall productivity is hampered by a number of supply-side constraints, including underinvestment in an agricultural sector that continues to rely on rudimentary technology. Industrial growth is impeded by high-costs due to poor infrastructure, low levels of private investment, and the depreciation of the Ugandan shilling. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation while encouraging foreign investment to boost production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. The global economic downturn in 2008 hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and a rapidly growing urban consumer population. Oil revenues and taxes are expected to become a larger source of government funding as production starts in the next five to 10 years. However, lower oil prices since 2014 and protracted negotiations and legal disputes between the Ugandan government and oil companies may prove a stumbling block to further exploration and development. Uganda faces many challenges. Instability in South Sudan has led to a sharp increase in Sudanese refugees and is disrupting Uganda's main export market. High energy costs, inadequate transportation and energy infrastructure, insufficient budgetary discipline, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence. During 2015 the Uganda shilling depreciated 22% against the dollar, and inflation rose from 3% to 9%, which led to the Bank of Uganda hiking interest rates from 11% to 17%. As a result, inflation remained below double digits; however, trade and capital-intensive industries were negatively impacted. The budget for FY 2015/16 is dominated by energy and road infrastructure spending, while relying on donor support for long-term economic drivers of growth, including agriculture, health, and education. The largest infrastructure projects are externally financed through low-interest concessional loans. As a result, debt servicing for these loans is expected to rise in 2016/2017 by 22% and consume 15% the domestic budget.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $84.93 billion (2016 est.) $80.92 billion (2015 est.) $77.21 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $25.61 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (2016 est.) 4.8% (2015 est.) 4.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,100 (2016 est.) $2,000 (2015 est.) $2,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 17.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 73.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 73.7%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.6%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (manioc, tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, and fish
Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 19.03 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 40%
industry: 10%
services: 50% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA% 9.4% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 19.7% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.5 (2013) 45.7 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $3.748 billion
expenditures: $5.41 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 35.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 29.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.23 billion (2016 est.) -$2.29 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.723 billion (2016 est.) $2.667 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports - partners: Rwanda 10.7%, UAE 9.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 9.8%, Kenya 9.7%, Italy 5.8%, Netherlands 4.8%, Germany 4.7%, China 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $4.677 billion (2016 est.) $4.911 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners: Kenya 16.4%, UAE 15.5%, India 13.4%, China 13.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.851 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.909 billion (31 December 2015 est.) note: excludes gold
Debt - external: $6.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $5.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $7.294 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $7.727 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $1.788 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar - 3,427 (2016 est.) 3,234.1 (2015 est.) 3,234.1 (2014 est.) 2,599.8 (2013 est.) 2,505.6 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 2.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 100 million kWh (2014)
Electricity - imports: 50 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 711,400 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 21% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 59.9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 19.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 2.5 billion bbl (July 6, 1905)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 26,290 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 20.22 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 54 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided

domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 55 per 100 persons

international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania (2015)
Broadcast media: public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and TV networks; Uganda first began licensing privately owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007, there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; tra (2007)
Internet country code: .ug
Internet users: total: 7.131 million percent of population: 19.2% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 47 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 42
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Railways: total 1,244 km

narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 20,000 km
(excludes local roads) paved: 3,264 km
unpaved: 16,736 km (2011)
Waterways: (there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2011)
Ports and terminals: lake port(s): Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell (Lake Victoria)
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Military branches: Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF): Land Forces (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that while recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent, "no person under the apparent age of 18 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2013) 1.45% of GDP (2012) 3.73% of GDP (2011) 1.45% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 602,212 (South Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers); 224,098 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 41,167 (Burundi); 38,780 (Somalia) (refugees and asylum seekers); 15,226 (Rwanda) (2016) IDPs: 30,000 (displaced in northern Uganda because of fighting between government forces and the Lord's Resistance Army; as of 2011, most of the 1.8 million people displaced to IDP camps at the height of the conflict had returned home or resettled, but many had not found durable solutions; intercommunal violence and cattle raids) (2015)
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