Turks and Caicos Islands Population: 53,701

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 History
The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate Crown colony upon Jamaica's independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands remain a British overseas territory. Grand Turk island suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Maria on 22 September 2017 resulting in loss of power and communications as well as damage to housing and businesses.

 Geography
    Include eight large islands and numerous smaller cays, islets, and reefs; only two of the Caicos Islands and six of the Turks group are inhabited
Location: two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of The Bahamas, north of Haiti
Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W
Area: total: 948 sq km
land: 948 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 389 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch
Land use: agricultural land: 1.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 1.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.) forest: 36.2% (2011 est.)
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
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 People
Nationality: noun: none
adjective: none
Ethnic groups: black 87.6%, white 7.9%, mixed 2.5%, East Indian 1.3%, other 0.7% (2006 est.)
Languages: English (official)
Religions: Protestant 72.8% (Baptist 35.8%, Church of God 11.7%, Anglican 10%, Methodist 9.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%), Roman Catholic 11.4%, Jehovah's Witness 1.8%, other 14% (2006 est.)
Population: 53,701 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.62% (male 5,916 /female 5,694)
15-24 years: 13.7% (male 3,657 /female 3,698)
25-54 years: 52.97% (male 14,316 /female 14,128)
55-64 years: 6.96% (male 1,988 /female 1,748)
65 years and over: 4.76% (male 1,181 /female 1,375) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 33.8 years
male: 34.1 years
female: 33.5 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.09% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 14.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 9.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 93.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.77% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 5,000 GRAND TURK (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.1 years male: 77.3 years
female: 83 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands
abbreviation: TCI
etymology: the Turks Islands are named after the Turk's cap cactus (native to the islands and appearing on the flag and coat of arms), while the Caicos Islands derive from the native term "caya hico" meaning "string of islands"
Government type: parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)
geographic coordinates: 21 28 N, 71 08 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, usually celebrated the Monday after the second Saturday in June
Constitution: several previous; latest signed 7 August 2012, effective 15 October 2012 (The Turks and Caicos Constitution Order 2011)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Nigel DAKIN (since 15 July 2019)

head of government: Premier Sharlene CARTWRIGHT-ROBINSON (since 20 December 2016); first female Premier of Turks and Caicos

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor from among members of the House of Assembly elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Assembly (19 seats; 15 members in multi-seat constituencies and a single all-islands constituency directly elected by simple majority vote, 1 member nominated by the premier and appointed by the governor, 1 nominated by the opposition party leader and appointed by the governor, and 2 from the Turks and Caicos Islands Civic Society directly appointed by the governor; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 15 December 2016 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - PDM 10, PNP 5; composition - men 15, women 6, percent of women 28.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and other judges, as determined by the governor); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 2 justices); note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Appeals Court judges appointed by the governor in accordance with the Judicial Service Commission, a 3-member body of high-level judicial officials; Supreme Court judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65, but terms can be extended to age 70; Appeals Court judge tenure determined by individual terms of appointment

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Sharlene CARTWRIGHT-ROBINSON] Progressive National Party or PNP [Washington MISICK]
International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), UPU
National symbol(s): conch shell, Turk's cap cactus
National anthem: name: This Land of Ours
lyrics/music: Conrad HOWELL

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the UK, "God Save the Queen" is the official anthem (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism, offshore financial services, and fishing. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US is the leading source of tourists, accounting for more than three-quarters of the more than 1 million visitors that arrive annually. Three-quarters of the visitors come by ship. Major sources of government revenue also include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $632 million (2007 est.) $568.3 million (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): n/a
GDP - real growth rate: 11.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,100 (2007 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 49% (2017 est.) government consumption: 21.5% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 69.5% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -56.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.5% (2017 est.) industry: 8.9% (2017 est.) services: 90.6% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), citrus fruits; fish
Industries: tourism, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 4,848 (1990 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:

note: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial, and other services
Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 247.3 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 224.3 million (2017 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2017 est.) 0.7% (2016 est.)
Exports: $24.77 million (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
Imports: $591.3 million (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials
Debt - external: n/a
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 235 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 218.6 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 82,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,420 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,369 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 221,800 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development (2018)

domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available; (2018)

international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: no local terrestrial TV stations, broadcasts from the Bahamas can be received and multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; government-run radio network operates alongside private broadcasters with a total of about 15 stations
Internet country code: .tc
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
(2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Roadways: total 121 km
(2003) paved: 24 km (2003)
unpaved: 97 km (2003)
Merchant marine: total 4

by type: general cargo 1, other 3 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cockburn Harbour, Grand Turk, Providenciales
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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