Saint Helena Population: 7,795

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 History
Saint Helena is a British Overseas Territory consisting of Saint Helena and Ascension Islands, and the island group of Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena: Uninhabited when first discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, Saint Helena was garrisoned by the British during the 17th century. It acquired fame as the place of Napoleon BONAPARTE's exile from 1815 until his death in 1821, but its importance as a port of call declined after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. During the Anglo-Boer War in South Africa, several thousand Boer prisoners were confined on the island between 1900 and 1903. Ascension Island: This barren and uninhabited island was discovered and named by the Portuguese in 1503. The British garrisoned the island in 1815 to prevent a rescue of Napoleon from Saint Helena. It served as a provisioning station for the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron on anti-slavery patrol. The island remained under Admiralty control until 1922, when it became a dependency of Saint Helena. During World War II, the UK permitted the US to construct an airfield on Ascension in support of transatlantic flights to Africa and anti-submarine operations in the South Atlantic. In the 1960s the island became an important space tracking station for the US. In 1982, Ascension was an essential staging area for British forces during the Falklands War. It remains a critical refueling point in the air-bridge from the UK to the South Atlantic. The island hosts one of four dedicated ground antennas (the others are on Diego Garcia (British Indian Ocean Territory), Kwajalein (Marshall Islands), and at Cape Canaveral, Florida (US)) that assist in the operation of the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation system. NASA and the US Air Force also operate a Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension as part of the deep space surveillance system for tracking orbital debris, which can be a hazard to spacecraft and astronauts. Tristan da Cunha: The island group consists of Tristan da Cunha, Nightingale, Inaccessible, and Gough Islands. Tristan da Cunha is named after its Portuguese discoverer (1506); it was garrisoned by the British in 1816 to prevent any attempt to rescue Napoleon from Saint Helena. Gough and Inaccessible Islands have been designated World Heritage Sites. South Africa leases a site for a meteorological station on Gough Island.

 Geography
Saint Helena harbors at least 40 species of plants unknown elsewhere in the world; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles and sooty terns; Queen Mary's Peak on Tristan da Cunha is the highest island mountain in the South Atlantic and a prominent landmark on the sea lanes around southern Africa
Location: islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, about midway between South America and Africa; Ascension Island lies 1,300 km (800 mi) northwest of Saint Helena; Tristan da Cunha lies 4,300 km (2,700 mi) southwest of Saint Helena
Geographic coordinates: Saint Helena: 15 57 S, 5 42 W Ascension Island: 7 57 S, 14 22 W Tristan da Cunha island group: 37 15 S, 12 30 W
Area: total: 308 sq km
land: Saint Helena Island 122 sq km; Ascension Island 88 sq km; Tristan da Cunha island group 98 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: Saint Helena: 60 km Ascension Island: NA Tristan da Cunha: 40 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: Saint Helena: tropical marine; mild, tempered by trade winds Ascension Island: tropical marine; mild, semi-arid Tristan da Cunha: temperate marine; mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena)
Terrain: the islands of this group are of volcanic origin associated with the Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge Saint Helena: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains Ascension: surface covered by lava flows and cinder cones of 44 dormant volcanoes; terrain rises to the east Tristan da Cunha: sheer cliffs line the coastline of the nearly circular island; the flanks of the central volcanic peak are deeply dissected; narrow coastal plain lies between The Peak and the coastal cliffs
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, lobster
Land use: agricultural land: 30.8% arable land 10.3%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 20.5% forest: 5.1%
other: 64.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: active volcanism on Tristan da Cunha volcanism: the island volcanoes of Tristan da Cunha (elev. 2,060 m) and Nightingale Island (elev. 365 m) experience volcanic activity; Tristan da Cunha erupted in 1962 and Nightingale in 2004
Current Environment Issues: NA
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 People
Nationality: noun: Saint Helenian(s)
adjective: Saint Helenian note: referred to locally as "Saints"
Ethnic groups: African descent 50%, white 25%, Chinese 25%
Languages: English
Religions: Protestant 75.9% (includes Anglican 68.9, Baptist 2.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.8%, Salvation Army 1.7%, New Apostolic 1.4%), Jehovah's Witness 4.1%, Roman Catholic 1.2%, other 2.5% (includes Baha'i), unspecified 0.8%, none 6.1%, no response 9.4%

note: data represent Saint Helena only (2016 est.)
Population: 7,795 note: Saint Helena's statistical agency estimated the enumerated national population (including Ascension Island and Tristan da Cuhna) to be 5,901 in 2016, according to the 2016 census; only Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha islands are inhabited, none of the other nearby islands/islets (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.27% (male 647/female 624)
15-24 years: 12.12% (male 484/female 463)
25-54 years: 44.27% (male 1,709/female 1,750)
55-64 years: 12.72% (male 519/female 475)
65 years and over: 14.62% (male 582/female 560) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 41.5 years
male: 41.5 years
female: 41.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.21% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 9.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 39.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: JAMESTOWN (capital) 1,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 16.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.5 years male: 76.6 years
female: 82.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.58 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
conventional short form: none
etymology: Saint Helena was discovered in 1502 by Galician navigator Joao da NOVA, sailing in the service of the Kingdom of Portugal, who named it "Santa Helena"; Ascension was named in 1503 by Portuguese navigator Afonso de ALBUQUERQUE who sighted the island on the Feast Day of the Ascension; Tristan da Cunha was discovered in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristao da CUNHA who christened the main island after himself (the name was subsequently anglicized)
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Legislative Council); limited self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Jamestown
geographic coordinates: 15 56 S, 5 43 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 3 administrative areas; Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, third Monday in April (1926)
Constitution: several previous; latest effective 1 September 2009 (The St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009) (2016)
Legal system: English common law and local statutes
Suffrage: 18 years of age
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)

head of government: Governor Lisa PHILLIPS (since 25 April 2016)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, 3 ex-officio officers, and 5 elected members of the Legislative Council elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch

note: the constitution order provides for an administrator for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha appointed by the governor
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Council (17 seats including the speaker and deputy speaker; 12 members directly elected in a single countrywide constituency by simple majority vote and 3 ex-officio members - the chief secretary, financial secretary, and attorney general; members serve 4-year terms) note: each voter can vote for up to 12 candidates; the Constitution Order provides for separate Island Councils for both Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

elections: last held on 17 July 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 12
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 2 justices); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice - a non-resident - and NA judges); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and Supreme Court justices appointed by the governor acting upon the instructions from a secretary of state acting on behalf of Queen ELIZABETH II; justices of both courts appointed until retirement at age 70, but can be extended

subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Small Claims Court; Juvenile Court
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: private sector; unions
International organization participation: UPU
National symbol(s): Saint Helena plover (bird)
National anthem:

note: as a territory of the UK, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $27 million in FY06/07 or more than twice the level of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing, raising livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island, on the Falklands, and in the UK. The economy depends largely on financial assistance from the UK, which amounted to about $27 million in FY06/07 or more than twice the level of annual budgetary revenues. The local population earns income from fishing, raising livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few jobs, 25% of the work force has left to seek employment on Ascension Island, on the Falklands, and in the UK.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $31.1 million (FY09/10 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $31.1 million (FY09/10 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $NA GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: NA% NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,800 (FY09/10 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,800 (FY09/10 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, corn, potatoes, vegetables; fish, lobster; livestock; timber coffee, corn, potatoes, vegetables; fish, lobster; livestock; timber
Industries: construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing, collectible postage stamps construction, crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fishing, collectible postage stamps
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 2,486 (1998 est.) 2,486 (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6%
industry: 48%
services: 46% (1987 est.) agriculture: 6% industry: 48% services: 46% (1987 est.)
Unemployment rate: 14% (1998 est.) 14% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $8.845 million
expenditures: $21.73 million note: revenue data reflect locally raised revenues only; the budget deficit is resolved by grant aid from the UK (FY06/07 est.) revenues: $8.845 million expenditures: $21.73 million note: revenue data reflect locally raised revenues only; the budget deficit is resolved by grant aid from the UK (FY06/07 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2012 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2012 est.)
Exports: $19 million (2004 est.) $19 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts fish (frozen, canned, and salt-dried skipjack, tuna), coffee, handicrafts
Imports: $20.53 million (2010 est.) $20.53 million (2010 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds (SHP) per US dollar - 0.7391 (2016 est.) 0.6542 (2015 est.) 0.607 (2014 est.) 0.6391 (2013 est.) 0.63 (2012 est.) Saint Helenian pounds (SHP) per US dollar - 0.7391 (2016 est.) 0.6542 (2015 est.) 0.607 (2014 est.) 0.6391 (2013 est.) 0.63 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.3 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 8,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 80 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 84.68 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 12,080 Mt (2012 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 1,267 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: can communicate worldwide

domestic: automatic digital network

international: country code (Saint Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Saint Helena - 1) (2010)
Broadcast media: Saint Helena has no local TV station; 2 local radio stations, one of which is relayed to Ascension Island; satellite TV stations rebroadcast terrestrially; Ascension Island has no local TV station but has 1 local radio station and receives relays of broad (2007)
Internet country code: .sh; note - Ascension Island assigned .ac
Internet users: total: 1,800 percent of population: 23.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2015)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1 Ascension Island (Wideawake Field)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 Saint Helena; note - opened to limited operations in July 2016 (2016)
Roadways: total 198 km
(Saint Helena 138 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 20 km) paved: 168 km (Saint Helena 118 km, Ascension 40 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km)
unpaved: 30 km (Saint Helena 20 km, Tristan da Cunha 10 km) (2002)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint Helena: Jamestown Ascension Island: Georgetown Tristan da Cunha: Calshot Harbor (Edinburgh)
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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