Peru Population: 31,331,228

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 History
Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peru declared its independence in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw a new election in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. Former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president in June 2011, and carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations. Poverty and unemployment levels have fallen dramatically in the last decade, and today Peru boasts one of the best performing economies in Latin America. Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard won a very narrow presidential runoff election in June 2016. Facing impeachment after evidence surfaced of his involvement in a vote-buying scandal, President KUCZYNSKI offered his resignation on 21 March 2018. Two days later, First Vice President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo was sworn in as president.

 Geography
    Shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

  • Peru is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire
  • on 19 February 1600, Mount Huaynaputina in the southern Peruvian Andes erupted in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historical times; intermittent eruptions lasted until 5 March 1600 and pumped an estimated 16 to 32 million metric tons of particulates into the atmosphere reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface and affecting weather worldwide; over the next two and a half years, millions died around the globe in famines from bitterly cold winters, cool summers, and the loss of crops and animals
Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Area: total: 1,285,216 sq km
land: 1,279,996 sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Size comparison: almost twice the size of Texas; slightly smaller than Alaska
Land Boundaries: total: 7,062 km border countries (5): Bolivia 1212 km, Brazil 2659 km, Chile 168 km, Colombia 1494 km, Ecuador 1529 km
Coastline: 2,414 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use: agricultural land: 18.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 3.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 14.6% (2011 est.) forest: 53% (2011 est.)
other: 28.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 25,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country's most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane; see note 2 under "Geography - note"
Current Environment Issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 60.2%, Amerindian 25.8%, white 5.9%, African descent 3.6%, other (includes Chinese and Japanese descent) 1.2%, unspecified 3.3% (2017 est.)
Languages: Spanish (official) 82.9%, Quechua (official) 13.6%, Aymara (official) 1.6%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.8%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2%, none .1%, unspecified .7% (2017 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 60%, Christian 14.6% (includes evangelical 11.1%, other 3.5%), other .3%, none 4%, unspecified 21.1% (2017 est.)
Population: 31,331,228 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.01% (male 4,147,404 /female 4,001,069)
15-24 years: 17.96% (male 2,820,562 /female 2,806,280)
25-54 years: 40.47% (male 6,081,748 /female 6,597,405)
55-64 years: 7.95% (male 1,201,272 /female 1,289,734)
65 years and over: 7.61% (male 1,125,850 /female 1,259,904) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 53.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 42.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.4 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 29.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.94% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 17.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.9% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.44% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 10.391 million LIMA (capital)
900,000 Arequipa
838,000 Trujillo (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.2 years (2013 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 68 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 19.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.2 years male: 72.1 years
female: 76.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 75.4% (2017)
Physicians density: 1.27 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 69.2% of population
total: 86.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 30.8% of population
total: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 82.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 53.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 76.2% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 17.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 23.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 72,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.7% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.2% (2017)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 94.2%
male: 97.2%
female: 91.2% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 14 years female: 15 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.7% male: 14.3% female: 15% (2018 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
etymology: exact meaning is obscure, but the name may derive from a native word "biru" meaning "river"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the word "Lima" derives from the Spanish pronunciation of "Limaq," the native name for the valley in which the city was founded in 1535; "limaq" means "talker" in coastal Quechua and referred to an oracle that was situated in the valley but which was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church
Administrative divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the Callao region
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28-29 July (1821)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993 amendments: proposed by Congress, by the president of the republic with the approval of the "Cabinet, " or by petition of at least 0.3% of voters; passage requires absolute majority approval by the Congress membership, followed by approval in a referendum; a referendum is not required if Congress approves the amendment by greater than two-thirds majority vote in each of two successive sessions; amended many times, last in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70
Executive branch: chief of state: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 23 March 2018); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the 21 March 2018 resignation of President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (since 28 July 2016) was accepted by parliament on 23 March 2018; the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Martin Alberto VIZCARRA Cornejo (since 23 March 2018); First Vice President Mercedes Rosalba ARAOZ Fernandez (since 23 March 2018); Second Vice President (vacant)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive terms); election last held on 10 April 2016 with a runoff on 5 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)

election results: Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard elected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi (Fuerza Popular) 39.9%, Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard (Peruanos Por el Kambio) 21.1%, Veronika MENDOZA (Broad Front) 18.7%, Alfredo BARNECHEA (Popular Action) 7%, Alan GARCIA (APRA) 5.8%, other 7.5%; percent of vote in second round - Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI Godard 50.1%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 49.9%

note: Prime Minister Salvador DEL SOLAR (since 11 March 2019) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - a referendum held in December 2018  approved a single consecutive term for Congress members

elections: last held on 10 April 2016 with run-off election on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in April 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 36.3%, PPK 16.5%, Frente Amplio 13.9%, APP 9.2%; APRA 8.3%; AP 7.2%, other 8.6%; seats by party/coalition - Fuerza Popular 73, Frente Amplio 20, PPK 18, APP 9; APRA 5; AP 5; composition - men 94, women 36, percent of women 27.7%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors) judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years); justices can serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA Broad Front (Frente Amplio; also known as El Frente Amplio por Justicia, Vida y Libertad) (coalition includes Nuevo Peru [Veronika Mendoza], Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente] Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi] National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio] Peru Posible or PP (coalition includes Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique] Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Javier VELASQUEZ Quesquen] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) Peruvian Nationalist Party [Ollanta HUMALA] Peruvians for Change (Peruanos Por el Kambio) or PPK [Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI] Popular Action (Accion Popular) or AP [Mesias GUEVARA Amasifuen] Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
International organization participation: APEC, BIS, CAN, CD, CELAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UN Security Council (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): vicuna (a camelid related to the llama);
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National Anthem of Peru)
lyrics/music: Jose DE LA TORRE Ugarte/Jose Bernardo ALZEDO

note: adopted 1822; the song won a national anthem contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos Jose PAREJA Rios (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Krishna R. URS (since 18 October 2017)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
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 Economy
Peru's economy reflects its varied topography - an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, and the dense forest of the Amazon. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world's second largest producer of silver and copper. The Peruvian economy grew by an average of 5.6% per year from 2009-13 with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. This growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru's metals and minerals exports, which account for 55% of the country's total exports. Growth slipped from 2014 to 2017, due to weaker world prices for these resources. Despite Peru's strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Peru's rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by over 35 percentage points since 2004, but inequality persists and continued to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru's non-coastal areas. The HUMALA administration passed several economic stimulus packages in 2014 to bolster growth, including reforms to environmental regulations in order to spur investment in Peru’s lucrative mining sector, a move that was opposed by some environmental groups. However, in 2015, mining investment fell as global commodity prices remained low and social conflicts plagued the sector. Peru's free trade policy continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Honduras, concluded negotiations with Guatemala and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and begun trade talks with El Salvador, India, and Turkey. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that seeks integration of services, capital, investment and movement of people. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the US has doubled. President Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI succeeded HUMALA in July 2016 and is focusing on economic reforms and free market policies aimed at boosting investment in Peru. Mining output increased significantly in 2016-17, which helped Peru attain one of the highest GDP growth rates in Latin America, and Peru should maintain strong growth in 2018. However, economic performance was depressed by delays in infrastructure mega-projects and the start of a corruption scandal associated with a Brazilian firm. Massive flooding in early 2017 also was a drag on growth, offset somewhat by additional public spending aimed at recovery efforts.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $430.3 billion (2017 est.) $420 billion (2016 est.) $403.7 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $214.2 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2017 est.) 4% (2016 est.) 3.3% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $13,500 (2017 est.) $13,300 (2016 est.) $13,000 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 19.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 19% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 64.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 24% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -22% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 7.6% (2017 est.) industry: 32.7% (2017 est.) services: 59.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: artichokes, asparagus, avocados, blueberries, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, quinoa, palm oil, marigolds, onions, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish
Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture
Industrial production growth rate: 2.7% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 17.03 million (2017 est.) note: individuals older than 14 years of age
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 25.8%
industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2017 est.) 6.7% (2016 est.) note: data are for metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment
Population below poverty line: 22.7% (2014 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.3 (2012) 51 (2005)
Budget: revenues: 58.06 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 64.81 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 27.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 25.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 24.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2017 est.) 3.6% (2016 est.) note: data are for metropolitan Lima, annual average
Current account balance: -$2.414 billion (2017 est.) -$5.239 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $44.92 billion (2017 est.) $37.02 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys
Exports - partners: China 26.5%, US 15.2%, Switzerland 5.2%, South Korea 4.4%, Spain 4.1%, India 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $38.65 billion (2017 est.) $35.13 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines
Imports - partners: China 22.3%, US 20.1%, Brazil 6%, Mexico 4.4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $63.83 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $61.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $66.25 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $66.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $98.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $91.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $5.447 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $4.255 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $56.56 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $78.84 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $80.98 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: nuevo sol (PEN) per US dollar - 3.265 (2017 est.) 3.3751 (2016 est.) 3.3751 (2015 est.) 3.185 (2014 est.) 2.8383 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 50.13 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 44.61 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 55 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 22 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 14.73 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 43,520 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 7,995 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 86,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 434.9 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 166,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 250,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 62,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 65,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.99 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 7.483 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 5.505 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 455.9 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 55.94 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 38,915,386
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations; 3G network and new LTE services begun; 2019 the year to try 5G; Peru is seen as a potential market for growth in broadband with government work with fiber-optic backbone to remote areas (2018)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now 125 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Broadcast media: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2019)
Internet country code: .pe
Internet users: total: 13,975,422
percent of population: 45.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 191 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 59
(2017) over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 12 (2017)
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 132
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 30 (2013)
under 914 m: 82 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: 786 km extra heavy crude, 1526 km gas, 679 km liquid petroleum gas, 1033 km oil, 15 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 1,854 km
(2014) standard gauge: 1,730.4 km 1.435-m gauge (34 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 124 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 140,672 km
(18,699 km paved) (2012)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (14,748 km paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved)
Waterways: 8,808 km (8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon River system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 95

by type: container ship 2, oil tanker 13, other 80 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita oil terminal(s): Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (2,250,200) (2017)
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
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 Military
Military branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP, includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2017) 1.29% of GDP (2016) 1.69% of GDP (2015) 1.46% of GDP (2014) 1.47% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 638,220 (Venezuela) (economic and political crisis; includes Venezuelans who have claimed asylum or have received alternative legal stay) (2019) IDPs: 59,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2017)
Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 44,000 hectares in 2016, a decrease of 16 per cent over 2015; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 410 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2016; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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