Saint Martin Population: 32,284

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 History
Although sighted by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and claimed for Spain, it was the Dutch who occupied the island in 1631 to exploit its salt deposits. The Spanish retook the island in 1633, but continued to be harassed by the Dutch. The Spanish finally relinquished Saint Martin to the French and Dutch, who divided it between themselves in 1648. Friction between the two sides caused the border to frequently fluctuate over the next two centuries, with the French eventually holding the greater portion of the island (about 61%). The cultivation of sugar cane introduced African slavery to the island in the late 18th century; the practice was not abolished until 1848. The island became a free port in 1939; the tourism industry was dramatically expanded during the 1970s and 1980s. In 2003, the populace of Saint Martin voted to secede from Guadeloupe and in 2007, the northern portion of the island became a French overseas collectivity. In 2010, the southern Dutch portion of the island became the independent nation of Sint Maarten within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 6 September 2017, Hurricane Irma passed over the island of Saint Martin causing extensive damage to roads, communications, electrical power, and housing; the UN estimated that 90% of the buildings were damaged or destroyed.

 Geography
    The southern border is shared with Sint Maarten, a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands; together, these two entities make up the smallest landmass in the world shared by two self-governing states
Location: Caribbean, located in the Leeward Islands (northern) group; French part of the island of Saint Martin in the Caribbean Sea; Saint Martin lies east of the US Virgin Islands
Geographic coordinates: 18 05 N, 63 57 W
Area: total: 54.4 sq km
land: 54.4 sq km
water: negligible

Size comparison: more than one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 16 km border countries (1): Sint Maarten 16 km
Coastline: 58.9 km (for entire island)
Maritime claims:
Climate: temperature averages 27-29 degrees Celsius all year long; low humidity, gentle trade winds, brief, intense rain showers; hurricane season stretches from July to November
Terrain:
Natural resources: salt
Natural hazards: subject to hurricanes from July to November
Current Environment Issues: excessive population pressure (increasing settlement); waste management; salinity intrusions into the main land of the island; fresh water supply is dependent on desalination of sea water; over exploitation of marine resources (reef fisheries, coral and shell); indiscriminate anchoring of boats damages coral reefs,causing underwater pollution and changes the sediment dynamics of Saint Martin's Island
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 People
Nationality:
Ethnic groups: other Creole (mulatto), black, Guadeloupe Mestizo (French-East Asia), white, East Indian
Languages: French (official), English, Dutch, French Patois, Spanish, Papiamento (dialect of Netherlands Antilles)
Religions: Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Protestant, Hindu
Population: 32,284 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.05% (male 4,184 /female 4,225)
15-24 years: 10.29% (male 1,638 /female 1,685)
25-54 years: 46.52% (male 7,181 /female 7,836)
55-64 years: 8.76% (male 1,317 /female 1,511)
65 years and over: 8.38% (male 1,195 /female 1,512) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 32.8 years
male: 31.9 years
female: 33.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate:
Net migration rate: -5.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Overseas Collectivity of Saint Martin
conventional short form: Saint Martin
local long form: Collectivite d'outre mer de Saint-Martin
local short form: Saint-Martin
etymology: explorer Christopher COLUMBUS named the island after Saint MARTIN of Tours because the 11 November 1493 day of discovery was the saint's feast day
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France
Capital: name: Marigot
geographic coordinates: 18 04 N, 63 05 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Independence: none (overseas collectivity of France)
National holiday: Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - local holiday is Schoelcher Day (Slavery Abolition Day) 12 July (1848), as well as St. Martin's Day, 11 November (1985), which commemorates the discovery of the island by COLUMBUS on Saint Martin's Day, 11 November 1493; the latter holiday celebrated on both halves of the island
Constitution: history: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) amendments: amendment procedures of France's constitution apply (2018)
Legal system: French civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Anne LAUBIES (since 8 June 2015)

head of government: President of Territorial Council Daniel GIBBS (since 2 April 2017); First Vice President Valerie DAMASEAU (since 2 April 2017)

cabinet: Executive Council; note - there is also an advisory economic, social, and cultural council elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior; president of Territorial Council elected by its members for a 5-year term; election last held on 26 March 2017

election results: Daniel GIBBS (TDG) elected president; Territorial Council vote - 18 votes, 4 blank, 1 invalid
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Territorial Council (23 seats; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms); Saint Martin elects 1 member to the French Senate and one member (shared with Saint Barthelemy) to the French National Assembly

elections: Territorial Council - last held on 18 and 25 March 2017 (next to be held in March 2022)

election results: Territorial Council - percent of vote by party (first round) - TDG 49.1%, MJP 13.7%, MVP 12.3%, HOPE 8.7%, Continuons pour Saint-Martin 6.5%, other 9.7%; seats by party - NA; percent of vote by party (second round) - TDG 64.3%, MJP 24.2%, MVP 11.5.5%; seats by party - TDG 18, MJP 4, MVP 1; composition - men 13, women 10, percent of women 43.5% French Senate - held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held not later than September 2020) French National Assembly - last held on 11 and 18 June 2017 (next to be held by June 2022) French Senate - 1 seat: UMP 1 French National Assembly - 1 seat: UMP 1
Judicial branch:
Political parties and leaders: Continuons pour St. Martin [Aline HANSON] En marche vers le progres or MVP [Alain RICHARDSON] Gereration Hope or HOPE [Jules CHARVILLE] Movement for Justice and Prosperity or MJP [Louis MUSSINGTON] New Direction [Jeanne VANTERPOOL] Rally Responsibility Success (Rassemblement Responsabilite Reussite or RRR [Alain RICHARDSON] Team Daniel Gibbs 2017 or TDG [Daniel GIBBS] Union for Progress (Union Pour le Progres or UPP) [Louis-Constant FLEMING]; affiliated with UMP
International organization participation: UPU
National symbol(s): brown pelican
National anthem: name: O Sweet Saint Martin's Land
lyrics/music: Gerard KEMPS

note: the song, written in 1958, is used as an unofficial anthem for the entire island (both French and Dutch sides); as a collectivity of France, in addition to the local anthem, "La Marseillaise" remains official on the French side (see France); as a constituent part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, in addition to the local anthem, "Het Wilhelmus" remains official on the Dutch side (see Netherlands)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas collectivity of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas collectivity of France)
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 Economy
The economy of Saint Martin centers on tourism with 85% of the labor force engaged in this sector. Over one million visitors come to the island each year with most arriving through the Princess Juliana International Airport in Sint Maarten. The financial sector is also important to Saint Martin’s economy as it facilitates financial mediation for its thriving tourism sector. No significant agriculture and limited local fishing means that almost all food must be imported. Energy resources and manufactured goods are also imported, primarily from Mexico and the US. Saint Martin is reported to have one of the highest per capita income in the Caribbean. As with the rest of the Caribbean, Saint Martin’s financial sector is having to deal with losing correspondent banking relationships. In September 2017, Hurricane Irma destroyed 95% of the French side of Saint Martin. Along the coastline of Marigot, the nerve center of the economy, the storm wiped out restaurants, shops, banks and open-air markets impacting more than 36,000 inhabitants.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $561.5 million (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $561.5 million (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $19,300 (2005 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1% (2000) industry: 15% (2000) services: 84% (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Industries: tourism, light industry and manufacturing, heavy industry
Labor force: 17,300 (2008 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: 85 directly or indirectly employed in tourist industry
Budget:
Exports:
Exports - commodities:
Imports:
Imports - commodities: crude petroleum, food, manufactured items
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: fully integrated access;  good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2018)

domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems (2018)

international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe
Broadcast media: 1 local TV station; access to about 20 radio stations, including RFO Guadeloupe radio broadcasts via repeater
Internet country code: .mf; note - .gp, the Internet country code for Guadeloupe, and .fr, the Internet country code for France, might also be encountered
Internet users: total: 1,100
percent of population: 3.5% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1
(2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways:
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France
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 Transnational Issues
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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