Montenegro Population: 614,249

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 History
The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929. At the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro joined with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the two-state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006. In 2017, Montenegro joined NATO and is currently completing its EU accession process, having officially applied to join the EU in December 2008.

 Geography
    Strategic location along the Adriatic coast
Location: Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 19 18 E
Area: total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Connecticut; slightly larger than twice the size of Delaware
Land Boundaries: total: 680 km border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km
Coastline: 293.5 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty
Climate: Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland
Terrain: highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus
Natural resources: bauxite, hydroelectricity
Land use: agricultural land: 38.2% (2011 est.) arable land: 12.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 24.1% (2011 est.) forest: 40.4% (2011 est.)
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 24 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; serious air pollution in Podgorica, Pljevlja and Niksie; air pollution in Pljevlja is caused by the nearby lignite power plant and the domestic use of coal and wood for household heating
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin
Ethnic groups: Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Romani 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)
Languages: Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)
Religions: Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)
Population: 614,249 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.22% (male 58,219 /female 53,718)
15-24 years: 13.05% (male 41,406 /female 38,755)
25-54 years: 40.16% (male 122,940 /female 123,746)
55-64 years: 13.47% (male 40,661 /female 42,089)
65 years and over: 15.09% (male 39,899 /female 52,816) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 20.5 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 38.9 years
male: 37.4 years
female: 40.4 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.34% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 11.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -4.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 66.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.54% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 177,000 PODGORICA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 26.3 years (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 23.3% (2013)
Physicians density: 2.33 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 92.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 95.9% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 7.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: <.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: <500 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.3% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1% (2013)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years female: 15 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 31.7% male: 30.7% female: 33.1% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: the name translates as "beneath Gorica"; the meaning of Gorica is "hillock"; the reference is to the small hill named Gorica that the city is built around
Administrative divisions: 24 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg-Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Tuzi, Ulcinj, Zabljak
Independence: 3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro);

notable earlier dates: 13 March 1852 (Principality of Montenegro established); 13 July 1878 (Congress of Berlin recognizes Montenegrin independence); 28 August 1910 (Kingdom of Montenegro established)
National holiday: National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against fascist occupiers and sided with the partisan communist movement)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007 amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures, require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Milo DJUKANOVIC (since 20 May 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016)

cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 April 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly

election results: Milo DJUKANOVIC elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Milo DJUKANOVIC (DPS) 53.9%, Mladen BOJANIC (independent) 33.4%, Draginja VUKSANOVIC (SDP) 8.2%, Marko MILACIC (PRAVA) 2.8%, other 1.7%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1; composition - men 62, women 19, percent of women 23.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for a 3-year term, other judges serve 9-year terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts
Political parties and leaders: Albanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (electoral coalition included FORCA, AA, DUA) Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ] Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC] Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC] Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC] Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (coalition includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP) Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC] Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC] Democratic People's Party or DNP [Milan KNEZEVIC] Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA] Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA] Liberal Party or LP [Andrija POPOVIC] Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC] New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU] New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC] Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC] Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC] Socialist People's Party or SNP [Vladimir JOKOVIC] True Montenegro or PRAVA [Marko MILACIC] United Montenegro or UCG [Goran DANILOVIC] (split from DEMOS) United Reform Action or URA [Dritan ABAZOVIC] Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]
International organization participation: CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): double-headed eagle;
national colors: red, gold
National anthem: name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC

note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nebojsa KALUDEROVIC (since 18 January 2017)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Judy Rising REINKE (since 20 December 2018)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382]  20-410-500
FAX: [382]  20-241-358
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 Economy
Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. Around 90% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil distribution. Tourism, which accounts for more than 20% of Montenegro’s GDP, brings in three times as many visitors as Montenegro’s total population every year. Several new luxury tourism complexes are in various stages of development along the coast, and a number are being offered in connection with nearby boating and yachting facilities. In addition to tourism, energy and agriculture are considered two distinct pillars of the economy. Only 20% of Montenegro’s hydropower potential is utilized. Montenegro plans to become a net energy exporter, and the construction of an underwater cable to Italy, which will be completed by the end of 2018, will help meet its goal. Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EU in 2012, having met the conditions set down by the European Council, which called on Montenegro to take steps to fight corruption and organized crime. The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. Net foreign direct investment in 2017 reached $848 million and investment per capita is one of the highest in Europe, due to a low corporate tax rate. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro in 2017 were Norway, Russia, Italy, Azerbaijan and Hungary. Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country’s highway system, which will become part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative. Cheaper borrowing costs have stimulated Montenegro’s growing debt, which currently sits at 65.9% of GDP, with a forecast, absent fiscal consolidation, to increase to 80% once the repayment to China’s Ex/Im Bank of a €800 million highway loan begins in 2019. Montenegro first instituted a value-added tax (VAT) in April 2003, and introduced differentiated VAT rates of 17% and 7% (for tourism) in January 2006. The Montenegrin Government increased the non-tourism Value Added Tax (VAT) rate to 21% as of January 2018, with the goal of reducing its public debt.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $11.08 billion (2017 est.) $10.63 billion (2016 est.) $10.32 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.784 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2017 est.) 2.9% (2016 est.) 3.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $17,800 (2017 est.) $17,100 (2016 est.) $16,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 13.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 9.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 9.1% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 76.8% (2016 est.) government consumption: 19.6% (2016 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.2% (2016 est.) investment in inventories: 2.9% (2016 est.) exports of goods and services: 40.5% (2016 est.) imports of goods and services: -63% (2016 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 7.5% (2016 est.) industry: 15.9% (2016 est.) services: 76.6% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives and related products, grapes; sheep, wine
Industries: steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: -4.2% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 273,200 (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7.9%
industry: 17.1%
services: 75% (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 16.1% (2017 est.) 17.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 8.6% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.7% (2014 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.9 (2014 est.) 32.3 (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: 1.78 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 2.05 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 37.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 67.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 66.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2017 est.) -0.3% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$780 million (2017 est.) -$710 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $422.2 million (2017 est.) $362 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Imports: $2.618 billion (2017 est.) $2.29 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.077 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $846.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $2.516 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $2.224 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $737.7 million (31 December 2017 est.) $763.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $39.77 million (31 December 2017 est.) $213.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.425 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.027 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.246 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 3.045 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 2.808 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 914 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.21 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 890,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 23% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 69% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 357 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,448 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.287 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 1,044,674
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 163 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites; telecom sector in-line with EU norms which means competition, access and tariff structures; DSL, cable, leased line, fiber and wireless; seasonal tourist have boosted mobile penetration; LTE technologies available (2018)

domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing; fixed-line 24 per 100 and mobile-cellular 163 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system
Broadcast media: state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 local public TV stations and 14 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations, 35 private radio stations, and several on-line media (2019)
Internet country code: .me
Internet users: total: 450,442
percent of population: 69.9% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 5 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Railways: total 250 km
(2017) standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (224 km electrified) (2017)
Roadways: total 7,762 km
(2010) paved: 7,141 km (2010)
unpaved: 621 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 12

by type: bulk carrier 4, other 8 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bar
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Ground Troops (Kopnena Vojska), Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.67% of GDP (2019 est.) 1.7% of GDP (2018) 1.66% of GDP (2017) 1.61% of GDP (2016) 1.38% of GDP (2015)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Kosovo ratified the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 145 (2018) note: 10,475 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-August 2019)
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