Sri Lanka Population: 22

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 History
The first Sinhalese arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century B.C., probably from northern India. Buddhism was introduced circa 250 B.C., and a great civilization developed at the cities of Anuradhapura (kingdom from circa 200 B.C. to circa A.D. 1000) and Polonnaruwa (from about 1070 to 1200). In the 14th century, a south Indian dynasty established a Tamil kingdom in northern Sri Lanka. The Portuguese controlled the coastal areas of the island in the 16th century and the Dutch in the 17th century. The island was ceded to the British in 1796, became a crown colony in 1802, and was formally united under British rule by 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; its name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972. Tensions between the Sinhalese majority and Tamil separatists erupted into war in 1983. After two decades of fighting, the government and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formalized a cease-fire in February 2002 with Norway brokering peace negotiations. Violence between the LTTE and government forces intensified in 2006, but the government regained control of the Eastern Province in 2007 and by May 2009, the remnants of the LTTE had been defeated. Since the end of the conflict, the government has enacted an ambitious program of economic development projects, many of which are financed by loans from the Government of China. In addition to efforts at reconstructing its economy, the government has resettled more than 95% of those civilians displaced during the final phase of the conflict and released the vast majority of former LTTE combatants captured by Government Security Forces. At the same time, there has been little progress on more contentious and politically difficult issues such as reaching a political settlement with Tamil elected representatives and holding accountable those alleged to have been involved in human rights violations and other abuses during the conflict.

 Geography
Strategic location near major Indian Ocean sea lanes
Location: Southern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of India
Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 81 00 E
Area: total: 65,610 sq km
land: 64,630 sq km
water: 980 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 1,340 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in south-central interior
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, phosphates, clay, hydropower, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 43.5% arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 15.8%; permanent pasture 7% forest: 29.4%
other: 27.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 5,700 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional cyclones and tornadoes
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization; coastal degradation from mining activities and increased pollution; freshwater resources being polluted by industrial wastes and sewage runoff; waste disposal; air pollution in Colombo
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Sri Lankan(s)
adjective: Sri Lankan
Ethnic groups: Sinhalese 74.9%, Sri Lankan Tamil 11.2%, Sri Lankan Moors 9.2%, Indian Tamil 4.2%, other 0.5% (2012 est.)
Languages: Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (official and national language) 18%, other 8% note: English, spoken competently by about 10% of the population, is commonly used in government and is referred to as the link language in the constitution
Religions: Buddhist (official) 70.2%, Hindu 12.6%, Muslim 9.7%, Roman Catholic 6.1%, other Christian 1.3%, other 0.05% (2012 est.)
Population: 22.235 million (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 24.35% (male 2,760,821/female 2,652,747)
15-24 years: 14.7% (male 1,660,402/female 1,608,022)
25-54 years: 41.71% (male 4,544,253/female 4,729,544)
55-64 years: 9.89% (male 1,018,357/female 1,181,060)
65 years and over: 9.35% (male 882,740/female 1,197,054) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 51.2%
youth dependency ratio: 37.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 14.1%
potential support ratio: 7.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 32.5 years
male: 31.2 years
female: 33.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 18.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.72% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative capital) 128,000 (2014); COLOMBO (capital) 707,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 25.4 note: median age at first birth among women 30-34 (2006/07 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 30 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.8 years male: 73.3 years
female: 80.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.09 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 68.4% (2006/07)
Health expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.68 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 3.6 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 95% of population
total: 95.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 5% of population
total: 4.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 96.7% of population
total: 95.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 3.3% of population
total: 4.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.03% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 4,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.8% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 26.3% (2012)
Education expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 93.6%
female: 91.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20.1% male: 15%
female: 27.8% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
conventional short form: Sri Lanka
local long form: Shri Lanka Prajatantrika Samajavadi Janarajaya/Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu
local short form: Shri Lanka/Ilankai
former: Serendib, Ceylon note: the name means "resplendent island" in Sanskrit
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Colombo; note - Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte is the legislative capital
geographic coordinates: 6 55 N, 79 50 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Eastern, North Central, Northern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa, Southern, Uva, Western
Independence: 4 February 1948 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 February (1948)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 16 August 1978, certified 31 August 1978; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Roman-Dutch civil law, English common law, and Jaffna Tamil customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Maithripala SIRISENA (since 9 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Ranil WICKREMESINGHE (since 9 January 2015) holds the title of prime minister

head of government: President Maithripala SIRISENA (since 9 January 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by preferential majority popular vote for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 8 January 2015 (next to be held by January 2021); note - the January 2015 election was held nearly 2 years ahead of schedule

election results: Maithripala SIRISENA elected president; percent of vote - Maithripala SIRISENA (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) 51.3%, Mahinda Percy RAJAPAKSA (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) 47.6%, other 1.1%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (225 seats; 196 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote using a preferential method in which voters select 3 candidates in order of preference; remaining 29 seats allocated to other political parties and groups in proportion to share of national vote; members serve 6-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 August 2015 following President SIRISENA's dissolution of Parliament in late June in an effort to consolidate power and pass reforms (next to be held in 2021)

election results: percent of vote by alliance/party - EYJP 45.7%, UPFA 42.4%, JVP 4.9%, TNA 4.6%, SLMC 0.4%, EPDP 0.3% other 1.7%; seats by alliance/party EYJP 106, UPFA 95, TNA 16, JVP 6, SLMC 1, EPDP 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Republic (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices); note - the court has exclusive jurisdiction to review legislation judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president; other justices appointed by the president with the advice of the chief justice; all justices hold office until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate's Courts; municipal and primary courts
Political parties and leaders: Eelam People's Democratic Party or EPDP [Douglas DEVANANDA] Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Anura Kumara DISSANAYAKE] Jathika Hela Urumaya or JHU [Patali Champika RANAWAKA] Sri Lanka Freedom Party or SLFP [Maithripala SIRISENA] Sri Lanka Muslim Congress or SLMC [Rauff HAKEEM] Tamil National Alliance or TNA [R. SAMPANTHAN] United National Front for Good Governance or EYJP (coalition includes UNP) United National Party or UNP [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE] United People's Freedom Alliance or UPFA (coalition includes SLFP)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy Sinhalese Buddhist lay groups other: labor unions; hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups such as the National Movement Against Terrorism
International organization participation: ABEDA, ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion, water lily; national colors: maroon, yellow
National anthem: name: "Sri Lanka Matha" (Mother Sri Lanka)
lyrics/music: Ananda SAMARKONE

note: adopted 1951
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Prasad KARIYAWASAM (since 14 July 2014)
chancery: 2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4025 through 4028
FAX: [1] (202) 232-7181
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Atul KESHAP (since 21 August 2015); note - also accredited to Maldives
embassy: 210 Galle Road, Colombo 3
mailing address: P. O. Box 106, Colombo
telephone: [94] (11) 249-8500
FAX: [94] (11) 243-7345
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 Economy
Sri Lanka continues to experience strong economic growth following the end of the government's 26-year conflict with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. The government has been pursuing large-scale reconstruction and development projects in its efforts to spur growth in war-torn and disadvantaged areas, develop small and medium enterprises, and increase agricultural productivity. The government's high debt payments and bloated civil service have contributed to historically high budget deficits and low tax revenues remain a concern. Government debt of about 72% of GDP remains among the highest in emerging markets. The new government in 2015 drastically increased wages for public sector employees, which boosted demand for consumer goods but hurt the overall balance of payments and reduced foreign exchange reserves.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $237.8 billion (2016 est.) $226.5 billion (2015 est.) $216.1 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $82.24 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2016 est.) 4.8% (2015 est.) 4.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $11,200 (2016 est.) $10,700 (2015 est.) $10,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 26.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 25.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 3.5%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 3.5%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -28.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, spices, vegetables, fruit, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, beef; fish
Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, construction
Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 9.062 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 28.4%
industry: 25.7%
services: 45.9% (30 Jun 2015)
Unemployment rate: 4.5% (2016 est.) 4.7% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 8.9% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 39.5% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 49 (2010) 46 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $10.98 billion
expenditures: $15.54 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 77.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 76% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: covers central government debt, and excludes debt instruments directly owned by government entities other than the treasury (e.g. commercial bank borrowings of a government corporation); the data includes treasury debt held by foreign entities as well as
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (2016 est.) 0.9% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.231 billion (2016 est.) -$2.009 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $10.12 billion (2016 est.) $10.5 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: textiles and apparel, tea and spices; rubber manufactures; precious stones; coconut products, fish
Exports - partners: US 26%, UK 9%, India 7.2%, Germany 4.3% (2015)
Imports: $18.64 billion (2016 est.) $18.93 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, textiles, machinery and transportation equipment, building materials, mineral products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: India 24.6%, China 20.6%, UAE 7.2%, Singapore 5.9%, Japan 5.7% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.303 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $47.65 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $45.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $20.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $23.67 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $18.81 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (LKR) per US dollar - 146.6 (2016 est.) 135.86 (2015 est.) 135.86 (2014 est.) 130.57 (2013 est.) 127.6 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.4 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 51.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 47% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 34,860 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 32,780 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 98,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 2,682 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 56,570 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 16 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 24.385 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone services have improved significantly and are available in most parts of the country

domestic: national trunk network consists mostly of digital microwave radio relay; fiber-optic links now in use in Colombo area and fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership i

international: country code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: government operates 8 TV channels and a radio network; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services available; 35 private TV stations and about 50 radio stations (2012)
Internet country code: .lk
Internet users: total: 6.614 million percent of population: 30% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 19 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 15
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 4

914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 1,447 km
broad gauge: 1,447 km 1.676-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 114,093 km
paved: 16,977 km
unpaved: 97,116 km (2010)
Waterways: 160 km (primarily on rivers in southwest) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 21

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 13, chemical tanker 1, container 1, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 8) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Colombo container port(s) (TEUs): Colombo (3,651,963)
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 Military
Military branches: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Coast Guard (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18-22 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 5-year service obligation (Air Force) (2012)
Military expenditures: 2.43% of GDP (2012) 2.89% of GDP (2011) 2.43% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 44,934 (civil war; more than half displaced prior to 2008; many of the more than 480,000 IDPs registered as returnees have not reached durable solutions) (2015)
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