Saint Lucia Population: 165,510

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 History
The island, with its fine natural harbor at Castries and burgeoning sugar industry, was contested between England and France throughout the 17th and early 18th centuries (changing possession 14 times); it was finally ceded to the UK in 1814 and became part of the British Windward Islands colony. Even after the abolition of slavery on its plantations in 1834, Saint Lucia remained an agricultural island, dedicated to producing tropical commodity crops. In the mid-20th century, Saint Lucia joined the West Indies Federation (1958–1962) and in 1967 became one of the six members of the West Indies Associated States, with internal self-government. In 1979, Saint Lucia gained full independence.

 Geography
    The twin Pitons (Gros Piton and Petit Piton), striking cone-shaped peaks south of Soufriere, are one of the scenic natural highlights of the Caribbean
Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 13 53 N, 60 58 W
Area: total: 616 sq km
land: 606 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: three and a half times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 158 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August
Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with broad, fertile valleys
Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral springs, geothermal potential
Land use: agricultural land: 17.4% (2011 est.) arable land: 4.9% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 11.5% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 1% (2011 est.) forest: 77% (2011 est.)
other: 5.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hurricanes volcanism: Mount Gimie (948 m), also known as Qualibou, is a caldera on the west of the island; the iconic twin pyramidal peaks of Gros Piton (771 m) and Petit Piton (743 m) are lava dome remnants associated with the Soufriere volcano; there have been no historical magmatic eruptions, but a minor steam eruption in 1766 spread a thin layer of ash over a wide area; Saint Lucia is part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion, particularly in the northern region
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Saint Lucian(s)
adjective: Saint Lucian
Ethnic groups: black/African descent 85.3%, mixed 10.9%, East Indian 2.2%, other 1.6%, unspecified 0.1% (2010 est.)
Languages: English (official), French patois
Religions: Roman Catholic 61.5%, Protestant 25.5% (includes Seventh Day Adventist 10.4%, Pentecostal 8.9%, Baptist 2.2%, Anglican 1.6%, Church of God 1.5%, other Protestant 0.9%), other Christian 3.4% (includes Evangelical 2.3% and Jehovah's Witness 1.1%), Rastafarian 1.9%, other 0.4%, none 5.9%, unspecified 1.4% (2010 est.)
Population: 165,510 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 19.77% (male 16,840 /female 15,874)
15-24 years: 14.79% (male 12,419 /female 12,060)
25-54 years: 42.93% (male 34,228 /female 36,818)
55-64 years: 10.41% (male 7,944 /female 9,284)
65 years and over: 12.11% (male 9,086 /female 10,957) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 41.1 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 27.9 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 13.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 35.5 years
male: 34.3 years
female: 36.6 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.31% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 13.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 18.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 22,000 CASTRIES (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 48 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.1 years male: 75.4 years
female: 81 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 55.5% (2011/12)
Physicians density: 0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 1.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.5% of population
rural: 95.6% of population
total: 96.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.5% of population
rural: 4.4% of population
total: 3.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 84.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 91.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 90.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 8.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 9.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.7% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.8% (2012)
Education expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2016) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 46.2% male: 42.6% female: 51% (2016 est.)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Saint Lucia
etymology: named after Saint LUCY of Syracuse by French sailors who were shipwrecked on the island on 13 December 1502, the saint's feast day note: pronounced saynt-looshya
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Castries
geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 61 00 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: in 1785, the village of Carenage was renamed Castries, after Charles Eugene Gabriel de La Croix de Castries (1727-1801), who was then the French Minister of the Navy and Colonies
Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Anse-la-Raye, Canaries, Castries, Choiseul, Dennery, Gros-Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Soufriere, Vieux-Fort
Independence: 22 February 1979 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)
Constitution: history: previous 1958, 1960 (preindependence); latest presented 20 December 1978, effective 22 February 1979 amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires at least two-thirds majority by the House of Assembly membership in the final reading and assent to by the governor general; passage of amendments to various constitutional sections such as those on fundamental rights and freedoms, government finances, the judiciary, and procedures for amending the constitution, require at least three-quarters majority vote by the House and assent to by the governor general; passage of amendments approved by the House but rejected by the Senate require a majority of votes cast in a referendum (2018)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Neville CENAC (since 12 January 2018)

head of government: Prime Minister Allen CHASTANET (since 7 June 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of: Senate (11 seats; 6 members appointed on the advice of the prime minister, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 2 upon consultation with religious, economic, and social groups; members serve 5-year terms) House of Assembly (17 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 12 July 2016 (next in 2021) House of Assembly - last held on 6 June 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 8, women 3, percent of women 27.3% House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - UWP 54.8%, SLP 44.1%, other 1.1%; seats by party - UWP 11, SLP 6; composition - men 14, women 3, percent of women 17.6%; note - total Parliament percent of women 21.4%
Judicial branch: highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states with 4 on Saint Lucia; Saint Lucia is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, an independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrate's court
Political parties and leaders: Lucian People's Movement or LPM [Therold PRUDENT] Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Philip J. PIERRE] United Workers Party or UWP [Allen CHASTANET]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): twin pitons (volcanic peaks), Saint Lucia parrot;
national colors: cerulean blue, gold, black, white
National anthem: name: Sons and Daughters of St. Lucia
lyrics/music: Charles JESSE/Leton Felix THOMAS

note: adopted 1967
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Anton Edsel EDMUNDS (since 8 September 2017)
chancery: 1628 K Street, NW, Suite 1250, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6792 through 6795
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6723
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Lucia; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Lucia
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 Economy
The island nation has been able to attract foreign business and investment, especially in its offshore banking and tourism industries. Tourism is Saint Lucia's main source of jobs and income - accounting for 65% of GDP - and the island's main source of foreign exchange earnings. The manufacturing sector is the most diverse in the Eastern Caribbean area. Crops such as bananas, mangos, and avocados continue to be grown for export, but St. Lucia's once solid banana industry has been devastated by strong competition. Saint Lucia is vulnerable to a variety of external shocks, including volatile tourism receipts, natural disasters, and dependence on foreign oil. Furthermore, high public debt - 77% of GDP in 2012 - and high debt servicing obligations constrain the CHASTANET administration's ability to respond to adverse external shocks. St. Lucia has experienced anemic growth since the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008, largely because of a slowdown in tourism - airlines cut back on their routes to St. Lucia in 2012. Also, St. Lucia introduced a value added tax in 2012 of 15%, becoming the last country in the Eastern Caribbean to do so. In 2013, the government introduced a National Competitiveness and Productivity Council to address St. Lucia's high public wages and lack of productivity.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.542 billion (2017 est.) $2.469 billion (2016 est.) $2.388 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.686 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2017 est.) 3.4% (2016 est.) -0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $14,400 (2017 est.) $14,200 (2016 est.) $13,800 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 19.4% of GDP (2017 est.) 15.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 24.3% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 16.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 62.7% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -56.9% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.9% (2017 est.) industry: 14.2% (2017 est.) services: 82.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus, root crops, cocoa
Industries: tourism; clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages, corrugated cardboard boxes, lime processing, coconut processing
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 79,700 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 21.7%
industry: 24.7%
services: 53.6% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: 20% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 398.2 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 392.8 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 70.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 69.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.1% (2017 est.) -3.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $21 million (2017 est.) -$31 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $185.1 million (2017 est.) $188.2 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: bananas 41%, clothing, cocoa, avocados, mangoes, coconut oil (2010 est.)
Exports - partners: US 67.6%, UK 5.9%, Trinidad and Tobago 5.5% (2017)
Imports: $600 million (2017 est.) $575.9 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, fuels
Imports - partners: US 53.3%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.8% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $321.8 million (31 December 2017 est.) $320.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $570.6 million (31 December 2017 est.) $529 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2017 est.) 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 369 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 343.2 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 89,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 3,100 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 3,113 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 437,900 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 176,694
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: an adequate system that is automatically switched; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2018)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 21 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 107 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber System and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables, along with Intelsat from Martinique, carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados
Broadcast media: 3 privately owned TV stations; 1 public TV station operating on a cable network; multi-channel cable TV service available; a mix of state-owned and privately owned broadcasters operate nearly 25 radio stations including repeater transmission stations
Internet country code: .lc
Internet users: total: 86,000
percent of population: 52.4% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
Roadways: total 1,210 km
(2011) paved: 847 km (2011)
unpaved: 363 km (2011)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Castries, Cul-de-Sac, Vieux-Fort
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 Military
Military branches: no regular military forces; Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (includes Special Service Unit, Marine Unit) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary security service; no national army (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Illicit drugs: transit point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe
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