Saint Kitts and Nevis Population: 53,094

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 History
Carib Indians occupied the islands of the West Indies for hundreds of years before the British and French began settlement in 1623. During the course of 17th century, Saint Kitts became the premier base for English and French expansion into the Caribbean. The French ceded the territory to the UK in 1713. At the turn of the 18th century, Saint Kitts was the richest British Crown Colony per capita in the Caribbean, a result of the sugar trade. Although small in size and separated by only 3 km (2 mi) of water, Saint Kitts and Nevis were viewed and governed as different states until the late-19th century, when the British forcibly unified them along with the island of Anguilla. In 1967, the island territory of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla became an associated state of the UK with full internal autonomy. The island of Anguilla rebelled and was allowed to secede in 1971. The remaining islands achieved independence in 1983 as Saint Kitts and Nevis. In 1998, a referendum on Nevis to separate from Saint Kitts fell short of the two-thirds majority vote needed.

 Geography
    Smallest country in the Americas and Western Hemisphere; with coastlines in the shape of a baseball bat and ball, the two volcanic islands are separated by a 3-km-wide channel called The Narrows; on the southern tip of long, baseball bat-shaped Saint Kitts lies the Great Salt Pond; Nevis Peak sits in the center of its almost circular namesake island and its ball shape complements that of its sister island
Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago
Geographic coordinates: 17 20 N, 62 45 W
Area: total: 261 sq km (Saint Kitts 168 sq km; Nevis 93 sq km)
land: 261 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 135 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)
Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors
Natural resources: arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 23.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 19.2% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 3.5% (2011 est.) forest: 42.3% (2011 est.)
other: 34.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 8 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to October) volcanism: Mount Liamuiga (1,156 m) on Saint Kitts, and Nevis Peak (985 m) on Nevis, are both volcanoes that are part of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles, which extends from Saba in the north to Grenada in the south
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion and silting affects marine life on coral reefs; water pollution from uncontrolled dumping of sewage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s)
adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian
Ethnic groups: African descent 92.5%, mixed 3%, white 2.1%, East Indian 1.5%, other .6%, unspecified .3% (2001 est.)
Languages: English (official)
Religions: Protestant 74.4% (includes Anglican 20.6%, Methodist 19.1%, Pentecostal 8.2%, Church of God 6.8%, Moravian 5.5%, Baptist 4.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 4.7%, Evangelical 2.6%, Bretheren 1.8%, other .3%), Roman Catholic 6.7%, Rastafarian 1.7%, Jehovah's Witness 1.3%, other 7.6%, none 5.2%, unspecified 3.2% (2001 est.)
Population: 53,094 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20.09% (male 5,354 /female 5,311)
15-24 years: 14.28% (male 3,645 /female 3,936)
25-54 years: 44.25% (male 12,059 /female 11,437)
55-64 years: 12.35% (male 3,274 /female 3,283)
65 years and over: 9.03% (male 2,236 /female 2,559) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 35.5 years
male: 35.7 years
female: 35.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.7% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 30.8% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.92% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 14,000 BASSETERRE (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.2 years male: 73.7 years
female: 78.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.77 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.52 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 4.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 87.3% of population (2007 est.)
rural: 87.3% of population (2007 est.)
total: 87.3% of population (2007 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 12.7% of population (2007 est.)
rural: 12.7% of population (2007 est.)
total: 12.7% of population (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.9% (2016)
Education expenditures: 2.8% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 13 years female: 16 years (2015)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
conventional short form: Saint Kitts and Nevis
former: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
etymology: Saint Kitts was, and still is, referred to as Saint Christopher and this name was well established by the 17th century (although who first applied the name is unclear); in the 17th century a common nickname for Christopher was Kit or Kitt, so the island began to be referred to as "Saint Kitt's Island" or just "Saint Kitts"; Nevis is derived from the original Spanish name "Nuestra Senora de las Nieves" (Our Lady of the Snows) and refers to the white halo of clouds that generally wreathes Nevis Peak note: Nevis is pronounced neevis
Government type: federal parliamentary democracy (National Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Basseterre
geographic coordinates: 17 18 N, 62 43 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the French name translates as "low land" in English; the reference is to the city's low-lying location within a valley, as well as to the fact that the city is on the leeward (downwind) part of the island, and is thus a safe anchorage
Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Christ Church Nichola Town, Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland, Saint James Windward, Saint John Capesterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capesterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point
Independence: 19 September 1983 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)
Constitution: history: several previous (preindependence); latest presented 22 June 1983, effective 23 June 1983 amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval by at least two-thirds majority of the total Assembly membership and assent to by the governor general; amendments to constitutional provisions such as the sovereignty of the federation, fundamental rights and freedoms, the judiciary, and the Nevis Island Assembly also require approval in a referendum by at least two-thirds of the votes cast in Saint Kitts and in Nevis (2018)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Samuel W.T. SEATON (since 2 September 2015); note - SEATON was acting Governor General from 20 May to 2 September 2015

head of government: Prime Minister Timothy HARRIS (since 18 February 2015); Deputy Prime Minister Shawn RICHARDS (since 22 February 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by governor general in consultation with prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by governor general
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly (14 or 15 seats, depending on inclusion of attorney general; 11 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 3 appointed by the governor general - 2 on the advice of the prime minister and the third on the advice of the opposition leader; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 February 2015 (next to be held by 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - SKNLP 39.3%, PAM 27.9% CCM 13.0% NRP 10.8%, PLP 9.0%; seats by party - PAM 4, SKNLP 3, CCM 2, NRP 1, PLP 1; composition as of early 2018, including the attorney general - men 11, women 4, percent of women 26.7%
Judicial branch: highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 assigned to Saint Kitts and Nevis; note - the ECSC in 2003 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) as the final court of appeal on Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Kitts and Nevis is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, an independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Mark BRANTLEY] Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY] People's Action Movement or PAM [Shawn RICHARDS] People's Labour Party or PLP [Dr. Timothy HARRIS] Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
National symbol(s): brown pelican, royal poinciana (flamboyant) tree;
national colors: green, yellow, red, black, white
National anthem: name: Oh Land of Beauty!
lyrics/music: Kenrick Anderson GEORGES

note: adopted 1983
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Thelma Patricia PHILLIP-BROWNE (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 686-2636
FAX: [1] (202) 686-5740
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis
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 Economy
The economy of Saint Kitts and Nevis depends on tourism; since the 1970s, tourism has replaced sugar as the economy’s traditional mainstay. Roughly 200,000 tourists visited the islands in 2009, but reduced tourism arrivals and foreign investment led to an economic contraction in the 2009-2013 period, and the economy returned to growth only in 2014. Like other tourist destinations in the Caribbean, Saint Kitts and Nevis is vulnerable to damage from natural disasters and shifts in tourism demand. Following the 2005 harvest, the government closed the sugar industry after several decades of losses. To compensate for lost jobs, the government has embarked on a program to diversify the agricultural sector and to stimulate other sectors of the economy, such as export-oriented manufacturing and offshore banking. The government has made notable progress in reducing its public debt, from 154% of GDP in 2011 to 83% in 2013, although it still faces one of the highest levels in the world, largely attributable to public enterprise losses. Saint Kitts and Nevis is among other countries in the Caribbean that supplement their economic activity through economic citizenship programs, whereby foreigners can obtain citizenship from Saint Kitts and Nevis by investing there.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.55 billion (2017 est.) $1.518 billion (2016 est.) $1.476 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $964 million (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.1% (2017 est.) 2.9% (2016 est.) 2.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $28,200 (2017 est.) $27,600 (2016 est.) $27,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 19.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 41.4% (2017 est.) government consumption: 25.9% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 30.8% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 62.5% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -60.4% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.1% (2017 est.) industry: 30% (2017 est.) services: 68.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fish
Industries: tourism, cotton, salt, copra, clothing, footwear, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 18,170 (June 1995 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.5% (1997)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 307 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 291.1 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 1.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 62.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 61.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (2017 est.) -0.3% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$97 million (2017 est.) -$102 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $57.4 million (2017 est.) $53.9 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery, food, electronics, beverages, tobacco
Exports - partners: US 49.6%, Poland 15.2%, Turkey 11.6% (2016)
Imports: $335.3 million (2017 est.) $307.9 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, manufactures, food, fuels
Imports - partners: US 56.8%, Trinidad and Tobago 6.8%, Cyprus 6.2%, Japan 4% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $365.1 million (31 December 2017 est.) $320.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $201.8 million (31 December 2017 est.) $187.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $598.4 million (31 December 2011) $623.9 million (2010 est.)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2017 est.) 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 208 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 193.4 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 64,200 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 94% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,700 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,743 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 248,100 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 76,878
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 146 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2018)

domestic: interisland links via ECFS; fixed-line teledensity about 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 146 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 1-869; connected internationally by the East ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables
Broadcast media: the government operates a national TV network that broadcasts on 2 channels; cable subscription services provide access to local and international channels; the government operates a national radio network; a mix of government-owned and privately owned broadcasters operate roughly 15 radio stations
Internet country code: .kn
Internet users: total: 39,000
percent of population: 75.7% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 2 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Railways: total 50 km
(2008)
narrow gauge: 50 km 0.762-m gauge on Saint Kitts for tourists (2008)
Roadways: total 383 km
(2002) paved: 163 km (2002)
unpaved: 220 km (2002)
Merchant marine: total 240

by type: bulk carrier 6, container ship 5, general cargo 44, oil tanker 55, other 130 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Basseterre, Charlestown
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 Military
Military branches: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, National Security, Labour, Immigration, and Social Security: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Defense Force (includes Coast Guard), Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; some money-laundering activity
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