Bahrain Population: 1,281,332

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 History
In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has become an international banking center. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. The Sunni-led government has struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar protests at home with police and military action. The aftermath led to modest reforms, though continued dissatisfaction by Bahraini oppositionists with the extent of the reforms, has led to a broader dialogue between government officials, political societies, and legislators.

 Geography
Close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E
Area: total: 760 sq km
land: 760 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 161 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m
Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Land use: arable land: 1.79%
permanent crops: 3.95%
other: 94.26% (2011)
Irrigated land: 40.15 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms
Current Environment Issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs)
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini
Ethnic groups: Bahraini 46%, non-Bahraini 54% (2010 census)
Languages: Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
Religions: Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)
Population: 1,281,332 July 2013 est. note: includes 235,108 non-nationals
Age structure: 0-14 years: 20% (male 130,097/female 126,067)
15-24 years: 15.9% (male 113,973/female 89,602)
25-54 years: 56.2% (male 472,537/female 247,873)
55-64 years: 5.2% (male 43,884/female 23,352)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 16,262/female 17,685) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 30.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 27.3 %
elderly dependency ratio: 2.9 %
potential support ratio: 34.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 31.4 years
male: 32.8 years
female: 28.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.57% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 14.16 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 2.65 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 14.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 88.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.21% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MANAMA (capital) 262,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.26 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 20 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.43 years
male: 76.28 years
female: 80.63 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61.8% (1995)
Health expenditures: 5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.44 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 1.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 600 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 32.9% (2008)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.1%
female: 91.6% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2006)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 28.3%
male: 25.7%
female: 32.6% (2004)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn
former: Dilmun, State of Bahrain
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Manama
geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asamah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern), Wasat (Central)

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor
Independence: 15 August 1971 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
Constitution: adopted 14 February 2002
Legal system: mixed legal system of Islamic law, English common law, Egyptian civil, criminal, and commercial codes; customary law
Suffrage: 20 years of age; universal; note - Bahraini Cabinet in May 2011 endorsed a draft law lowering eligibility to 18 years
Executive branch: chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa, Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Shura Council or Consultative Council (40 members appointed by the King) and the Council of Representatives or Chamber of Deputies (40 seats; members directly elected to serve four-year terms)

elections: Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 30 October 2010 (next election to be held in 2014); byelections to fill 18 vacated seats held in two rounds on 24 September and 1 October 2011

election results: Council of Representatives (2010) - percent of vote by society - NA; seats by society - Wifaq (Shia) 18, Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 3, Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 2, independents 17; Council of Representatives byelection for 18 seats vacated by Wifaq (2011) - seats by society - independent Sunni 8, independent Shia 8, other 2; note - Bahrain has societies rather than parties
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of a president and 6 members) note - the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into the civil law and sharia law courts judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation and Constitutional Court judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure

subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; higher and lower shariah courts, and the High Shariah Court of Appeal
Political parties and leaders: note: political parties are prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law progovernment: Arab Islamic Center Society [Ahmad Sanad AL-BENALI] Constitutional Gathering Society Islamic Asalah [Abd al-Halim MURAD] Islamic Saff Society [Abdullah Khalil BU GHAMAR] Islamic Shura Society Movement of National Justice Society [Muhi al-Din KHAN] National Action Charter Society [Muhammad AL-BUAYNAYN] National Dialogue Society National Islamic Minbar [Ali AHMAD] National Unity Gathering [Abdullah AL-HUWAYHI] oppositon: National Democratic Action Society [Ibrahim SHARIF] National Democratic Assembly [Hasan AL-ALI] National Fraternity Society [Musa AL-ANSARI] National Progressive Tribune [Abd al-Nabi SALMAN] Unitary National Democratic Assemblage [Fadhil ABBAS] Wifaq National Islamic Society [Ali SALMAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Sunni: Al-Fatih Awakening Shia: 14 February Revolution Youth Coalition Bahrain Islamic Freedom Movement [Said SHIHABI] Haqq Movement [Hasan MUSHAYMA] Islamic Amal [Muhammad Ali AL-MAHFUDH] Khalas [Abd al-Rauf AL-SHAYIB] Wafa Islamic Society [Abd al-Wahab HUSAYN]
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)
lyrics/music: unknown

note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Huda Azra Ibrahim NUNU
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas C. KRAJESKI
embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
telephone: [973] 1724-2700
FAX: [973] 1727-0547
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 Economy
Bahrain has taken great strides in diversifying its economy and its highly developed communication and transport facilities make Bahrain home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. Bahrain's economy, however, continues to depend heavily on oil. Petroleum production and refining account for more than 60% of Bahrain's export receipts, 70% of government revenues, and 11% of GDP. Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil - finance, and construction. Bahrain competes with Malaysia as a worldwide center for Islamic banking and continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In 2011 and 2012, Bahrain experienced economic setbacks as a result of domestic unrest, however, several factors indicate that the economy is beginning to recover, such as the return of the formula one race and tourist cruise ships to Bahrain. Economic policies aimed at restoring confidence in Bahrain's economy, such as the suspension of an expatriate labor tax and frequent bailouts of Gulf Air, will make Bahrain's foremost long-term economic challenges - youth unemployment and the growth of government debt - more difficult to address.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $33.63 billion (2012 est.) $32.39 billion (2011 est.) $31.72 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $27.03 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (2012 est.) 2.1% (2011 est.) 4.7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,200 (2012 est.) $28,700 (2011 est.) $28,700 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 31.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 29.3% of GDP (2011 est.) 30.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 42.4%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 84.6%
imports of goods and services: -62.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 42.4%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0.5%
exports of goods and services: 84.6%
imports of goods and services: -62.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 705,900 note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1%
industry: 79%
services: 20% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 15% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $8.378 billion
expenditures: $8.675 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 54.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 47.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (2012 est.) -0.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $2.846 billion (2012 est.) $3.247 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $21.4 billion (2012 est.) $19.91 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
Exports - partners: Saudi Arabia 3%, India 2.2%, UAE 2%, South Korea 1.9% (2012)
Imports: $15.17 billion (2012 est.) $12.11 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery, chemicals
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 26.8%, US 9.7%, China 9.6%, Japan 6.4%, India 4.9%, France 4.7% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.853 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.245 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $27.12 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $27.04 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $16.87 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $15.94 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $10.02 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $8.777 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $17.15 billion (31 December 2011) $20.43 billion (31 December 2010) $16.93 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar - 0.376 (2012 est.) 0.376 (2011 est.) 0.376 (2010 est.) 0.376 (2009) 0.376 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 13.16 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 86
Electricity - consumption: 12.97 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 214 million kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 3.168 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)
Crude oil - production: 44,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 152,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 256,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 107.2 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 270,800 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 51,450 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 226,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 0 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12.58 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 12.25 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 30.69 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 276,500 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 122
Cellular Phones in use: 1.694 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones

international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2007)
Broadcast media: state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2007)
Internet country code: .bh
Internet hosts: 47,727 (2012)
Internet users: 419,500 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 184
Airports (paved runways): total 4
over 3,047 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 20 km; oil 54 km (2013)
Roadways: total 4,122 km
paved: 3,392 km
unpaved: 730 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 8

by type: bulk carrier 2, container 4, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 5 (Kuwait 5)

registered in other countries: 5 (Honduras 5) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah
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 Military
Military branches: Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (RBA), Royal Bahraini Navy (RBN), Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF), Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force (RBADF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 508,863
females age 16-49: 290,801 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 423,757
females age 16-49: 245,302 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 8,988
female: 8,117 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2006)
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 Transnational Issues
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