Angola Population: 28.4 million

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 History
Angola scores low on human development indexes despite using its large oil reserves to rebuild since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS stepped down from the presidency in 2017, having led the country since 1979. He pushed through a new constitution in 2010. Joao LOURENCO was elected president in August 2017 and became president of the MPLA in September 2018.

 Geography
    The province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about eight times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,369 km border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1427 km, Zambia 1065 km
Coastline: 1,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use: agricultural land: 47.5% (2016 est.) arable land: 3.9% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 0.3% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 43.3% (2016 est.) forest: 46.3% (2016 est.)
other: 6.2% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 860 sq km (2014)
Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Current Environment Issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Languages: Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6% (2014 est.) note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census
Religions: Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)
Population: 30,355,880 (July 2018 est.) note: Angola's national statistical agency projects the country's 2017 population to be 28.4 million
Age structure: 0-14 years: 48.07% (male 7,257,155 /female 7,336,084)
15-24 years: 18.33% (male 2,701,123 /female 2,863,950)
25-54 years: 27.95% (male 4,044,944 /female 4,441,028)
55-64 years: 3.32% (male 466,085 /female 540,452)
65 years and over: 2.32% (male 296,411 /female 408,648) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 97.6 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 93 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.9 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.49% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 43.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 65.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 7.774 million LUANDA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.4 years (2015/16 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 65.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 71.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 60.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.6 years male: 58.5 years
female: 62.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.09 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 13.7% (2015/16)
Physicians density: 0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population

unimproved:
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 22.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 51.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 11.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 77.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.9% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 310,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 13,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.2% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 19% (2016)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 13 years female: 8 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 39.4% male: 39% female: 39.8% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time
etymology: originally named "Sao Paulo da Assuncao de Loanda" (Saint Paul of the Assumption of Loanda), which over time was shortened and corrupted to just Luanda
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution: history: previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the National Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly subject to prior Constitutional Court review if requested by the president of the republic (2017)
Legal system: civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (since 26 September 2017); Vice President Bornito De Sousa Baltazar DIOGO (since 26 September 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: the candidate of the winning party or coalition in the last legislative election becomes the president; president serves a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in 2022)

election results: Joao Manuel Goncalves LOURENCO (MPLA) elected president by the winning party following the 23 August 2017 general election
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by closed list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 August 2017 (next to be held in August 2022)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 61.1%, UNITA 26.7%, CASA-CE 9.5%, PRS 1.4%, FNLA 0.9%, other 0.5%; seats by party - MPLA 150, UNITA 51, CASA-CE 16, PRS 2, FNLA 1; composition - men 136, women 84, percent of women 38.2%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms

subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Andre Mendes de CARVALHO] National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - party has two factions; one led by Lucas NGONDA; the other by Ngola KABANGU National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Joao LOURENCO]; note - Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS stepped down 8 Sept 2018 ruling party in power since 1975 Social Renewal Party or PRS [Benedito DANIEL]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope);
national colors: red, black, yellow
National anthem: name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nina Maria FITE (14 February 2018)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda, C.P. 6468, Angola
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000
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 Economy
Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports; Angola is an OPEC member and subject to its direction regarding oil production levels. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to exports. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war (1975-2002). However, the government since 2005 has used billions of dollars in credit from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to help rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, and as a result, the national military, international partners, and private Angolan firms all continue to remove them. The global recession that started in 2008 stalled Angola’s economic growth and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued billions in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell. Lower prices for oil and diamonds also resulted in GDP falling 0.7% in 2016. Angola formally abandoned its currency peg in 2009 but reinstituted it in April 2016 and maintains an overvalued exchange rate. In late 2016, Angola lost the last of its correspondent relationships with foreign banks, further exacerbating hard currency problems. Since 2013 the central bank has consistently spent down reserves to defend the kwanza, gradually allowing a 40% depreciation since late 2014. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to less than 9% in 2014, before rising again to above 30% from 2015-2017. Continued low oil prices, the depreciation of the kwanza, and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects, although several major international oil companies remain in Angola. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major long-term challenge that poses an additional threat to the economy.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $193.6 billion (2017 est.) $198.6 billion (2016 est.) $203.9 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $126.5 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -2.5% (2017 est.) -2.6% (2016 est.) 0.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,800 (2017 est.) $7,200 (2016 est.) $7,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 28.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 24.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 80.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 15.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 10.3% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -1.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 25.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 10.2% (2011 est.) industry: 61.4% (2011 est.) services: 28.4% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 12.51 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
industry: 15% (2015 est.) industry and
services: 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.6% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.6% (2008 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.7 (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: 37.02 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 45.44 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 65% of GDP (2017 est.) 75.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29.8% (2017 est.) 30.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.254 billion (2017 est.) -$4.834 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $33.07 billion (2017 est.) $31.03 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners: China 61.2%, India 13%, US 4.2% (2017)
Imports: $19.5 billion (2017 est.) $13.04 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners: Portugal 17.8%, China 13.5%, US 7.4%, South Africa 6.2%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $17.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $23.74 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $42.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $27.14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $11.21 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $9.16 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $28 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $23.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates: kwanza (AOA) per US dollar - 172.6 (2017 est.) 163.656 (2016 est.) 163.656 (2015 est.) 120.061 (2014 est.) 98.303 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 10.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 9.036 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.613 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 34% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 64% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.666 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.782 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 9.523 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 53,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 130,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 30,340 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 111,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 3.115 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 821.2 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 3.993 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 308.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 20.95 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 13,323,952
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: in the process of a restructure plan and opening up the telecom sector to new competitors, while still retaining a 45% govt portion of the share;  slow progress in LTE network development, with only about 10% of the country covered by network infrastructure at the end of 2017 (2018)

domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 45 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, WACS, ACE and SACS fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to other countries in west Africa, Brazil, Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29
Broadcast media: state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half-dozen private radio stations broadcast locally
Internet country code: .ao
Internet users: total: 2,622,403
percent of population: 13% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 176 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 31
(2017) over 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 145
(2013) over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 66 (2013)
under 914 m: 43 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 352 km gas, 85 km liquid petroleum gas, 1065 km oil, 5 km oil/gas/water (2013)
Railways: total 2,852 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge (2014) 123 km 0.600-m gauge
Roadways: total 26,000 km
(2018) paved: 13,600 km (2018)
unpaved: 12,400 km (2018)
Waterways: 1,300 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 55

by type: general cargo 14, oil tanker 8, other 33 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo
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 Military
Military branches: Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)
Military expenditures: 2.95% of GDP (2016) 3.52% of GDP (2015) 5.4% of GDP (2014) 4.88% of GDP (2013) 3.59% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,448 (Cote d'Ivoire), 5,709 (Mauritania) (2018), 37,520 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019)
Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa
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