Antigua and Barbuda Population: 95,882

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 History
The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. On 6 September 2017, Hurricane Irma passed over the island of Barbuda devastating the island and forcing the evacuation of the population to Antigua. Almost all the structures on Barbuda were destroyed and the vegetation stripped, but Antigua was spared the worst.

 Geography
    Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Area: total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 153 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use: agricultural land: 20.5% (2016 est.) arable land: 9.1% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 2.3% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 9.1% (2016 est.) forest: 22.3% (2016 est.)
other: 57.3% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 1.3 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups: African descent 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%, white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.) note: data represent population by ethnic group
Languages: English (official), Antiguan creole
Religions: Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)
Population: 95,882 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.91% (male 11,165 /female 10,800)
15-24 years: 16.6% (male 7,924 /female 7,997)
25-54 years: 42.03% (male 18,438 /female 21,861)
55-64 years: 10.13% (male 4,346 /female 5,370)
65 years and over: 8.32% (male 3,422 /female 4,559) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 35.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 9.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 32.2 years
male: 30.2 years
female: 33.8 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.2% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 15.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 24.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 21,000 SAINT JOHN'S (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.9 years male: 74.8 years
female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.99 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.76 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 3.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)
rural: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)
total: 91.4% of population (2011 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
rural: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.9% (2016)
Education expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling (2012 est.)
total population: 99%
male: 98.4%
female: 99.4% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 12 years female: 13 years (2012)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
etymology: "antiguo" is Spanish for "ancient" or "old"; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for "bearded" and the adjective may refer to the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded fig trees
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 1 November 1981 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order 1981) amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage of amendments to constitutional sections such as citizenship, fundamental rights and freedoms, the establishment, power, and authority of the executive and legislative branches, the Supreme Court Order, and the procedure for amending the constitution requires approval by at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership of both houses, approval by at least two-thirds majority in a referendum, and assent to by the governor general; passage of other amendments requires only two-thirds majority vote by both houses; amended 2009, 2011 (2018)
Legal system: common law based on the English model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of: Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) House of Representatives (18 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointed on 26 March 2018 (next NA) House of Representatives - last held on 21 March 2018 (next to be held in March 2023)

election results: Senate -  composition - men 8, women 9, percent of women 52.9% House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - ABLP 59.4%, UPP 37.2%, BPM 1.4%, other 1.9% ; seats by party - ABLP 15, UPP 1, BPM 1; composition - men 16, women 2, percent of women 11.1%; note - total Parliament percent of women 31.4%
Judicial branch: highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 assigned to Antigua and Barbuda judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
Political parties and leaders: Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM Antigua Labor Party or ABLP [Gaston BROWNE] Antigua Barbuda True Labor Party or ABTLP [Sharlene SAMUEL] Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER] Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS] Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL] Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Joanne MASSIAH] Go Green for Life [Owen GEORGE] Progressive Labor Movement or PLM United National Democratic Party or UNDP United Progressive Party or UPP [Harold LOVELL] (a coalition of ACLM, PLM, UNDP)
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): fallow deer;
national colors: red, white, blue, black, yellow
National anthem: name: Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee
lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS

note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Ronald SANDERS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3234 Prospect St. NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
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 Economy
Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Like other countries in the region, Antigua's economy was severely hit by effects of the global economic recession in 2009. The country suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009 and 2011. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels. Barbuda suffered significant damages after hurricanes Irma and Maria passed through the Caribbean in 2017. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and could be disrupted by potential damage from natural disasters. The new government, elected in 2014 and led by Prime Minister Gaston Browne, continues to face significant fiscal challenges. The government places some hope in a new Citizenship by Investment Program, to both reduce public debt levels and spur growth, and a resolution of a WTO dispute with the US.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.398 billion (2017 est.) $2.334 billion (2016 est.) $2.215 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.524 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2017 est.) 5.3% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $26,400 (2017 est.) $25,900 (2016 est.) $24,900 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 17.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 24.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.7% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.9% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 73.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -66.5% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.) industry: 20.8% (2017 est.) services: 77.3% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate: 6.8% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 30,000 (1991)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 298.2 million (2017 est.)
expenditures: 334 million (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 86.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 86.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2017 est.) -0.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$112 million (2017 est.) $2 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $86.7 million (2017 est.) $56.5 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
Exports - partners: Poland 62.2%, Cameroon 9.5%, US 5.1%, UK 4.5% (2017)
Imports: $560 million (2017 est.) $503.4 million (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Imports - partners: US 48%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
Debt - external: $441.2 million (31 December 2012) $458 million (June 2010)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2017 est.) 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 331 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 307.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 124,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 91 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,065 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 740,300 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 180,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 190 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good automatic telephone system with fiber-optic lines; telecom sector contributes heavily to GDP; numerous mobile network competitors licensed, but small and local (2018)

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 24 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 190 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies
Internet country code: .ag
Internet users: total: 60,000
percent of population: 65.2% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 3 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
under 914 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1
(2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 1,170 km
(2011) paved: 386 km (2011)
unpaved: 784 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 853

by type: bulk carrier 33, container ship 189, general cargo 562, oil tanker 2, other 67 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint John's
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 Military
Military branches: Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
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