Uzbekistan Population: 30,023,709

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 History
Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base, although cotton remains a major part of its economy. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islam KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms.

 Geography
    Along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Location: Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Area: total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Size comparison: about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 6,893 km border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1314 km, Tajikistan 1312 km, Turkmenistan 1793 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims: none (doubly landlocked)
Climate: mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use: agricultural land: 62.6% (2011 est.) arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 51.7% (2011 est.) forest: 7.7% (2011 est.)
other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 42,150 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
Current Environment Issues: shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani
Ethnic groups: Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 4.4% (2017 est.)
Languages: Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1% note: in the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status
Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Population: 30,023,709 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.61% (male 3,631,957 /female 3,457,274)
15-24 years: 17.85% (male 2,735,083 /female 2,623,511)
25-54 years: 44.95% (male 6,714,567 /female 6,781,485)
55-64 years: 8.15% (male 1,156,462 /female 1,289,703)
65 years and over: 5.44% (male 698,610 /female 935,057) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 47.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 41.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 29.1 years
male: 28.5 years
female: 29.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.91% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 16.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 50.5% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.464 million TASHKENT (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.4 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 20.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.3 years male: 71.2 years
female: 77.5 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 52,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,900 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 16.6% (2016)
Education expenditures: 6.4% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 12 years (2017)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"
Government type: presidential republic; highly authoritarian
Capital: name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati [Bukhara Province], Farg'ona Viloyati [Fergana Province], Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati [Samarkand Province], Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence: 1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992 amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Transport Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis) elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president

election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of: Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms) Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 13-14 January 2015 (next to be held in 2020) Legislative Chamber - last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 83, women 17, percent of women 17% Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Revival Democratic Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15; composition - men 126, women 24, percent of women 16%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 16.4% note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and economic sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term and can be reappointed for subsequent 10-year and lifetime terms

subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
Political parties and leaders: Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Boriy ALIKHANOV] Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV] Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV] National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV] People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): khumo (mythical bird);
national colors: blue, white, red, green
National anthem: name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Javlon VAHOBOV (since 29 November 2017)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel ROSENBLUM (since 24 May 2019)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
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 Economy
Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets. As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment. In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50% and announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the currency black market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $223 billion (2017 est.) $211.8 billion (2016 est.) $196.5 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $48.83 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.3% (2017 est.) 7.8% (2016 est.) 7.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,900 (2017 est.) $6,700 (2016 est.) $6,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 32.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 25.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 27.6% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.) industry: 33.7% (2017 est.) services: 48.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Industries: textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 18.12 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5% (2017 est.) 5.1% (2016 est.) note: official data; another 20% are underemployed
Population below poverty line: 14% (2016 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36.8 (2003) 44.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: 15.22 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 15.08 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): 0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 24.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.5% (2017 est.) 8% (2016 est.) note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012
Current account balance: $1.713 billion (2017 est.) $384 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $11.48 billion (2017 est.) $11.2 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners: Switzerland 38.7%, China 15.5%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.7%, Afghanistan 4.7% (2017)
Imports: $11.42 billion (2017 est.) $10.92 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
Imports - partners: China 23.7%, Russia 22.5%, Kazakhstan 10.7%, South Korea 9.8%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $16 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: n/a
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: n/a
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA (31 December 2012) $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar - 3,906.1 (2017 est.) 2,966.6 (2016 est.) 2,966.6 (2015 est.) 2,569.6 (2014 est.) 2,311.4 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 55.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 49.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 10.84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 12.96 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 86% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 46,070 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 27,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 594 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 61,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 60,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 3,977 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 52.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 43.07 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 9.401 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 95.58 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 24,265,460
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; growth in broadband penetration in the future; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 82 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2018)

international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
Broadcast media: the government controls media; 17 state-owned broadcasters - 13 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2019, the Uzbek Agency for Press and Information was reorganized into the Agency of Information and Mass Communications and became part of the Uzbek Presidential Administration with recent appointment of the Uzbek President's elder daughter as it deputy director (2019)
Internet country code: .uz
Internet users: total: 13,791,083
percent of population: 46.8% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 53 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 33
(2013) over 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Pipelines: 13,700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)
Railways: total 4,642 km
(2018) broad gauge: 4,642 km 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified) (2018)
Roadways: total 86,496 km
(2000) paved: 75,511 km (2000)
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
Waterways: 1,100 km (2012)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard (2019)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2019)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 79,942 (2018)
Illicit drugs: transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
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