Tuvalu Population: 10,959

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 History
In 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The following year, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000, Tuvalu negotiated a contract leasing its Internet domain name ".tv" for $50 million in royalties over a 12-year period. The agreement was subsequently renegotiated but details were not disclosed.

 Geography
One of the smallest and most remote countries on Earth; six of the nine coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoon
Location: Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about half way from Hawaii to Australia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 S, 178 00 E
Area: total: 26 sq km
land: 26 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 24 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain: low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, coconut (copra)
Land use: agricultural land: 60% arable land 0%; permanent crops 60%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 33.3%
other: 6.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: severe tropical storms are usually rare, but in 1997 there were three cyclones; low levels of islands make them sensitive to changes in sea level
Current Environment Issues: since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage facilities; beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from increasing ocean temperatures and acidification; Tuvalu is concerned about global increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water table; in 2000, the government appealed to Australia and New Zealand to take in Tuvaluans if rising sea levels should make evacuation necessary
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tuvaluan(s)
adjective: Tuvaluan
Ethnic groups: Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%
Languages: Tuvaluan (official), English (official), Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)
Religions: Protestant 98.4% (Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%), Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%
Population: 10,959 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.32% (male 1,647/female 1,566)
15-24 years: 19.76% (male 1,132/female 1,033)
25-54 years: 36.5% (male 1,989/female 2,011)
55-64 years: 8.66% (male 387/female 562)
65 years and over: 5.77% (male 255/female 377) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 25.5 years
male: 24.4 years
female: 26.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.85% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 23.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -6.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 59.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: FUNAFUTI (capital) 6,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.69 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.5 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 29.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 32.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.5 years male: 64.3 years
female: 68.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.98 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 30.5% (2007)
Health expenditures: 16.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.09 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.3% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 97.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.7% of population
rural: 3% of population
total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 86.3% of population
rural: 80.2% of population
total: 83.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13.7% of population
rural: 19.8% of population
total: 16.7% of population (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 39.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.6% (2007)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Tuvalu
local long form: none
local short form: Tuvalu
former: Ellice Islands note: "tuvalu" means "group of eight" referring to the country's eight traditionally inhabited islands
Government type: parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Funafuti; note - the capital is an atoll of some 29 islets; administrative offices are in Vaiaku Village on Fongafale Islet
geographic coordinates: 8 31 S, 179 13 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 island councils and 1 town council*; Funafuti*, Nanumaga, Nanumea, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Independence: 1 October 1978 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Constitution: previous 1978 (at independence); latest effective 1 October 1986; amended 2007, 2010, 2013 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and local customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Iakoba TAEIA Italeli (since 16 April 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Enele SOPOAGA (since 5 August 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from members of House of Assembly following parliamentary elections

election results: Enele SOPOAGA elected prime minister by House of Assembly; House of Assembly vote count on 4 August 2013 - 8 to 5; note - Willie TELAVI removed as prime minister by the governor general on 1 August 2013
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Assembly or Fale I Fono (15 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independent 15; 12 members reelected
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal is the Fiji Court of Appeal on Fiji Island (consists of the chief justice who visits twice a year); High Court, located on Fiji, consists of the chief justice of Fiji who presides over its sessions judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; justices of the Court of Appeal and puisne judges of the High Court are appointed by the president of Fiji, upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission, after consulting with the Cabinet Minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70; puisine judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years with mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; island courts; lands courts
Political parties and leaders: there are no political parties but members of parliament usually align themselves in informal groupings
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s): maneapa (native meeting house); national colors: light blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Tuvalu mo te Atua" (Tuvalu for the Almighty)
lyrics/music: Afaese MANOA

note: adopted 1978; the anthem's name is also the nation's motto
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aunese Makoi SIMATI (since 11 January 2013)
chancery: note - Tuvalu does not have an embassy in Washington, D.C.; UN office located at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 490-0534
FAX: [1] (212) 937-0692
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Tuvalu; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tuvalu
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 Economy
Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. Only eight of the atolls are inhabited. It is one of the smallest countries in the world, with its highest point at 4.6 meters above sea level. The country is isolated, almost entirely dependent on imports, particularly of food and fuel, and vulnerable to climate change and rising sea levels, which pose significant challenges to development. The public sector dominates economic activity. Tuvalu has few natural resources, except for its fisheries. Earnings from fish exports and fishing licenses for Tuvalu’s territorial waters are a significant source of government revenue. In 2013, revenue from fishing licenses doubled and totaled more than 45% of GDP. Official aid from foreign development partners has also increased. Tuvalu has substantial assets abroad. The Tuvalu Trust Fund, an international trust fund established in 1987 by development partners, has grown to $141 million in 2013 and is an important cushion for meeting shortfalls in the government's budget. While remittances are another substantial source of income, the value of remittances has declined since the 2008-2009 global financial crisis. Growing income inequality is one of many concerns for the nation.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $39 million (2016 est.) $37.52 million (2015 est.) $36.55 million (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $32 million (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2016 est.) 2.6% (2015 est.) 2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,500 (2016 est.) $3,400 (2015 est.) $3,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Agriculture - products: coconuts; fish
Industries: fishing
Industrial production growth rate: -26.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 3,615 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: note: people make a living mainly through exploitation of the sea, reefs, and atolls and through overseas remittances (mostly from workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 26.3% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $42.68 million
expenditures: $32.46 million (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 133.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Public debt: 41.1% of GDP (2013 est.) 43.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2016 est.) 3.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1 million (2016 est.) $2 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $600,000 (2010 est.) $1 million (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities: copra, fish
Imports: $136.5 million (2013 est.) $238.6 million (2012 est.)
Imports - commodities: food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $0 (2014)
Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars or Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.3291 (2015 est.) 1.67 (2014 est.) 1.1094 (2013 est.) 0.97 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 11.8 million kWh (2011)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2014)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5,100 kW (2011)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 96% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2014)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2014)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2014)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2014)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2014)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 4,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: serves particular needs for internal communications

domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands

international: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite (2015)
Broadcast media: no TV stations; many households use satellite dishes to watch foreign TV stations; 1 government-owned radio station, Radio Tuvalu, includes relays of programming from international broadcasters (2009)
Internet country code: .tv
Internet users: total: 5,000 percent of population: 42.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 8 km
paved: 8 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 58

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 24, chemical tanker 15, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 33 (China 4, Indonesia 1, Maldives 1, Singapore 19, South Korea 1, Turkey 1, Vietnam 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Funafuti
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 Military
Military branches: no regular military forces; Tuvalu Police Force (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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