Togo Population: 8,176,449

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 History
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. Since 2007, President GNASSINGBE has started the country along a gradual path to democratic reform. Togo has since held multiple presidential and legislative elections deemed generally free and fair by international observers. Despite those positive moves, political reconciliation has moved slowly, and the country experiences periodic outbursts of violent protest by frustrated citizens. Recent constitutional changes to institute a runoff system in presidential elections and establish term limits has not reduced the resentment many Togolese feel after over 50 years of one-family rule.

 Geography
    The country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Area: total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,880 km border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1098 km
Coastline: 56 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 67.4% (2011 est.) arable land: 45.2% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 3.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 18.4% (2011 est.) forest: 4.9% (2011 est.)
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 70 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; very little rain forest still present and what remains is highly degraded; desertification; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups: Adja-Ewe/Mina 42.4%, Kabye/Tem 25.9%, Para-Gourma/Akan 17.1%, Akposso/Akebu 4.1%, Ana-Ife 3.2%, other Togolese 1.7%, foreigners 5.2%, no response .4% (2013-14 est.) note: Togo has an estimated 37 ethnic groups
Languages: French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Religions: Christian 43.7%, folk 35.6%, Muslim 14%, none 6.2%, Hindu <.1%, Buddhist <.1%, Jewish <.1% (2010 est.)
Population: 8,176,449 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.13% (male 1,646,438 /female 1,634,609)
15-24 years: 19.1% (male 779,774 /female 782,192)
25-54 years: 32.96% (male 1,339,150 /female 1,356,020)
55-64 years: 4.34% (male 167,575 /female 187,432)
65 years and over: 3.46% (male 122,175 /female 161,084) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 81.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 76.2 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19.9 years
male: 19.6 years
female: 20.1 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.61% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 32.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 41.7% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.746 million LOME (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 21 years (2013/14 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 40.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.8 years male: 63.1 years
female: 68.6 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.32 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 19.9% (2013/14)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 24.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 2.9% of population (2015 est.)
total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 75.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 97.1% of population (2015 est.)
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,700 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.4% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 16.1% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2016)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 63.7%
male: 77.3%
female: 51.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 14 years n/a female: 11 years n/a (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.9% male: 3.7% female: 4.1% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (river) and "godo" (on the other side) to give the sense of "on the other side of the river"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togodo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-fifth of the National Assembly membership; passage requires four-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; a referendum is required if approved by only two-thirds majority of the Assembly or if requested by the president; constitutional articles on the republican and secular form of government cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2007, last in 2019 when the National Assembly unanimously approved a package of amendments including presidential term limits of two 5-year mandates (2019)
Legal system: customary law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)

head of government: Acting Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE (ADDI) 4%, other 2%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 20 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023)

election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 59, UFC 6, NET 3, MPDD 3, other 2, independent 18; composition - men 75, women 16, percent of women 17.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges, including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judicial appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yaovi AGBOYIBO] Alliance of Democrats for Integral Development or ADDI [Tchaboure GOGUE] Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON] Democratic Forces for the Republic or FDR [Dodji APEVON] National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE] New Togolese Commitment [Gerry TAAMA] Pan-African National Party or PNP [Tikpi ATCHADAM] Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO] Patriotic Movement for Democracy and Development or MPDD Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA] The Togolese Party [Nathaniel OLYMPIO] Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO] Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion;
national colors: green, yellow, red, white
National anthem: name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH

note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Frederic Edem HEGBE (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eric W. STROHMAYER (since 11 April 2019)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501
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 Economy
Togo has enjoyed a period of steady economic growth fueled by political stability and a concerted effort by the government to modernize the country’s commercial infrastructure, but discontent with President Faure GNASSINGBE has led to a rapid rise in protests, creating downside risks. The country completed an ambitious large-scale infrastructure improvement program, including new principal roads, a new airport terminal, and a new seaport. The economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, providing employment for around 60% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton and other agricultural products generate about 20% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves, which provide more than 20% of export earnings. Supported by the World Bank and the IMF, the government's decade-long effort to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a Heavily Indebted Poor Country debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country's debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms, and in January 2017, the IMF signed an Extended Credit Facility arrangement consisting of a three-year $238 million loan package. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased transparency in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo’s 2017 economic growth probably remained steady at 5.0%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in its port and mineral industry, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent years.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $12.97 billion (2017 est.) $12.42 billion (2016 est.) $11.82 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $4.767 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2017 est.) 5.1% (2016 est.) 5.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,700 (2017 est.) $1,600 (2016 est.) $1,600 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 16.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 21.8% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.2% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 84.5% (2017 est.) government consumption: 11.4% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -1.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -61% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 28.8% (2017 est.) industry: 21.8% (2017 est.) services: 49.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 2.595 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 55.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46 (2011)
Budget: revenues: 1.023 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 1.203 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 75.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 81.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.7% (2017 est.) 0.9% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$383 million (2017 est.) -$416 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $1.046 billion (2017 est.) $967.4 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners: Benin 16.7%, Burkina Faso 15.2%, Niger 8.9%, India 7.3%, Mali 6.7%, Ghana 5.5%, Cote dIvoire 5.4%, Nigeria 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $1.999 billion (2017 est.) $2 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners: China 27.5%, France 9.1%, Netherlands 4.4%, Japan 4.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $77.8 million (31 December 2017 est.) $42.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $1.442 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $1.22 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 617.4 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 232.6 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.261 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.14 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 230,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 70% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 29% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 15,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 13,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.651 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 6,219,981
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system; (2018)

domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 78 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating (2018)

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie; West Africa Cable System (WACS), linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal and the United Kingdom; GLO-1, linking countries along the west coast of Africa to each other and to Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station with multiple transmission sites; five private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with two stations (in Lome and Kara); several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2019)
Internet country code: .tg
Internet users: total: 877,310
percent of population: 11.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: 62 km gas
Railways: total 568 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways:
Waterways: 50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 327

by type: bulk carrier 7, container ship 4, general cargo 215, oil tanker 42, other 59 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome
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 Military
Military branches: Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Armee de l’Air), National Gendarmerie (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for military service; 2-year service obligation; currently the military is only an all-volunteer force (2017)
Military expenditures: 1.86% of GDP (2016) 1.71% of GDP (2015) 1.85% of GDP (2014) 1.77% of GDP (2013) 1.63% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 9,747 (Ghana) (2019)
Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
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