South Sudan Population: 10,204,581

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 History
British explorer Samuel BAKER established the colony of Equatoria in 1870, in the name of the Ottoman Khedive of Egypt who claimed the territory. Headquartered in Gondokoro (near modern day Juba), Equatoria in theory composed most of what is now South Sudan. After being cut off from colonial administration during the Mahdist War from 1885-1898, Equatoria was made a state under the Anglo-Egyptian condominium in 1899. It was largely left to itself over the following decades, but Christian missionaries converted much of the population and facilitated the spread of English, rather than Arabic. Equatoria was ruled by British colonial administrators separately from what is now Sudan until the two colonies were combined at the 1947 Juba Conference, as part of British plans to prepare the region for independence. When Sudan gained its independence in 1956, it was with the understanding that the southerners would be able to participate fully in the political system. When the Arab Khartoum government reneged on its promises, a mutiny began that led to two prolonged periods of conflict (1955-1972 and 1983-2005) in which perhaps 2.5 million people died - mostly civilians - due to starvation and drought. Ongoing peace talks finally resulted in a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, signed in January 2005. As part of this agreement, the south was granted a six-year period of autonomy to be followed by a referendum on final status. The result of this referendum, held in January 2011, was a vote of 98% in favor of secession. Since independence on 9 July 2011, South Sudan has struggled with good governance and nation building and has attempted to control opposition forces operating in its territory. Economic conditions have deteriorated since January 2012 when the government decided to shut down oil production following bilateral disagreements with Sudan. In December 2013, conflict between government and opposition forces killed tens of thousands and led to a dire humanitarian crisis with millions of South Sudanese displaced and food insecure. The warring parties signed a peace agreement in August 2015 that created a transitional government of national unity in April 2016. However, in July 2016, fighting broke out in Juba between the two principal signatories, plunging the country back into conflict. A "revitalized" peace agreement signed in September 2018 is currently in the process of being implemented.

 Geography
    Landlocked; The Sudd is a vast swamp in the north central region of South Sudan, formed by the White Nile, its size is variable but can reach some 15% of the country's total area during the rainy season; it is one of the world's largest wetlands
Location: East-Central Africa; south of Sudan, north of Uganda and Kenya, west of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 30 00 E
Area: total: 644,329 sq km
land: n/a
water: n/a

Size comparison: more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,018 km border countries (6): Central African Republic 1055 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 714 km, Ethiopia 1299 km, Kenya 317 km, Sudan 2158 km, Uganda 475 km note: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall heaviest in upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north
Terrain: plains in the north and center rise to southern highlands along the border with Uganda and Kenya; the White Nile, flowing north out of the uplands of Central Africa, is the major geographic feature of the country; The Sudd (a name derived from floating vegetation that hinders navigation) is a large swampy area of more than 100,000 sq km fed by the waters of the White Nile that dominates the center of the country
Natural resources: hydropower, fertile agricultural land, gold, diamonds, petroleum, hardwoods, limestone, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver
Land use: agricultural land: 100% arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0% permanent pasture: 100% forest: 0%
other: 0%
Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (2012)
Current Environment Issues: water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife conservation and loss of biodiversity; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
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 People
Nationality: noun: South Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: South Sudanese
Ethnic groups: Dinka (Jieng) 35.8%, Nuer (Naath) 15.6%, Shilluk (Chollo), Azande, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Murle, Mandari, Didinga, Ndogo, Bviri, Lndi, Anuak, Bongo, Lango, Dungotona, Acholi, Baka, Fertit (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official), Arabic (includes Juba and Sudanese variants), regional languages include Dinka, Nuer, Bari, Zande, Shilluk
Religions: animist, Christian, Muslim
Population: 10,204,581 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 2,194,952 /female 2,121,990)
15-24 years: 20.94% (male 1,113,008 /female 1,023,954)
25-54 years: 30.45% (male 1,579,519 /female 1,528,165)
55-64 years: 3.82% (male 215,247 /female 174,078)
65 years and over: 2.49% (male 145,812 /female 107,856) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 83.7 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 77.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.1 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 17.8 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.16% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 36.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 19.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -29.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 19.6% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 369,000 JUBA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.24 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.35 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 789 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 90.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 97.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 83.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.34 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 4% (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 66.7% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 58.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 33.3% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 41.3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 83.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)
total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 150,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 12,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.6% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 29.1% (2010)
Education expenditures: 1% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2009 est.)
total population: 27%
male: 40%
female: 16% (2009 est.) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 38.6% male: 39.5% female: 37.4% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of South Sudan
conventional short form: South Sudan
etymology: self-descriptive name from the country's former position within Sudan prior to independence; the name "Sudan" derives from the Arabic "bilad-as-sudan" meaning "Land of the Black [peoples]"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Juba
geographic coordinates: 04 51 N, 31 37 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 states; Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Upper Nile, Warrap, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Western Equatoria; note - in 2015, the creation of 28 new states was announced and in 2017 four additional, but these 32 states have not yet been vetted by the US Board on Geographic Names
Independence: 9 July 2011 (from Sudan)
National holiday: Independence Day, 9 July (2011)
Constitution: history: previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011, effective 9 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011) amendments: proposed by the National Legislature or by the president of the republic; passage requires submission of the proposal to the Legislature at least one month prior to consideration, approval by at least two-thirds majority vote in both houses of the Legislature, and assent by the president; amended 2013, 2015, 2018 (2018)
Legal system:
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Salva KIIR Mayardit (since 9 July 2011); First Vice President Taban Deng GAI (since 26 July 2016); Second Vice President James Wani IGGA (since 26 April 2016)

cabinet: National Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Transitional National Legislative Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next election scheduled for 2015 postponed to 2018 and again to 2021)

election results: Salva KIIR Mayardit elected president; percent of vote - Salva KIIR Mayardit (SPLM) 93%, Lam AKOL (SPLM-DC) 7%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral National Legislature consists of: Council of States, established by presidential decree in August 2011 (50 seats; 20 former members of the Council of States and 30 appointed representatives) Transitional National Legislative Assembly, established on 4 August 2016, in accordance with the August 2015 Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (400 seats; 170 members elected in April 2010, 96 members of the former National Assembly, 66 members appointed after independence, and 68 members added as a result of the 2016 Agreement); the TNLA will be expanded to 550 members after the transitional government forms

elections: Council of States - established and members appointed 1 August 2011 National Legislative Assembly - last held 11-15 April 2010 but did not take office until July 2011; current parliamentary term extended until 2021)

election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 20, unknown 30; composition - men 44, women 6, percent of women 12% National Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SPLM 251, DCP 10, independent 6, unknown 133; composition - men 291, women 109, percent of women 27.3%; note - total National Legislature percent of women 25.6%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of South Sudan (consists of the chief and deputy chief justices, 9 other justices and normally organized into panels of 3 justices, except when sitting as a Constitutional panel of all 9 justices chaired by the chief justice) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Council, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; justice tenure set by the National Legislature

subordinate courts: national level - Courts of Appeal; High Courts; County Courts; state level - High Courts; County Courts; customary courts; other specialized courts and tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Change or DC [Onyoti Adigo NYIKWEC] (formerly Sudan People's Liberation Movement-Democratic Movement or SPLM-DC) Sudan People's Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR Mayardit] Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-In Opposition or SPLM-IO [Riek MACHAR Teny Dhurgon]
International organization participation: AU, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
National symbol(s): African fish eagle;
national colors: red, green, blue, yellow, black, white
National anthem: name: South Sudan Oyee! (Hooray!)
lyrics/music: collective of 49 poets/Juba University students and teachers

note: adopted 2011; anthem selected in a national contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Philip Jada NATANA (since 17 September 2018)
chancery: 1015 31st St., NW, Third Floor, Washington, DC, 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7940
FAX: [1] (202) 293-7941
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas HUSHEK (since 5 June 2018)
embassy: Kololo Road adjacent to the EU's compound, Juba
telephone: [211] 912-105-188
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 Economy
Industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread, following several decades of civil war with Sudan. Continued fighting within the new nation is disrupting what remains of the economy. The vast majority of the population is dependent on subsistence agriculture and humanitarian assistance. Property rights are insecure and price signals are weak, because markets are not well-organized. South Sudan has little infrastructure – about 10,000 kilometers of roads, but just 2% of them paved. Electricity is produced mostly by costly diesel generators, and indoor plumbing and potable water are scarce, so less than 2% of the population has access to electricity. About 90% of consumed goods, capital, and services are imported from neighboring countries – mainly Uganda, Kenya and Sudan. Chinese investment plays a growing role in the infrastructure and energy sectors. Nevertheless, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa, with fertile soils and abundant water supplies. Currently the region supports 10-20 million head of cattle. At independence in 2011, South Sudan produced nearly three-fourths of former Sudan's total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day. The Government of South Sudan relies on oil for the vast majority of its budget revenues, although oil production has fallen sharply since independence. South Sudan is one of the most oil-dependent countries in the world, with 98% of the government’s annual operating budget and 80% of its gross domestic product (GDP) derived from oil. Oil is exported through a pipeline that runs to refineries and shipping facilities at Port Sudan on the Red Sea. The economy of South Sudan will remain linked to Sudan for some time, given the existing oil infrastructure. The outbreak of conflict in December 2013, combined with falling crude oil production and prices, meant that GDP fell significantly between 2014 and 2017. Since the second half of 2017 oil production has risen, and is currently about 130,000 barrels per day. Poverty and food insecurity has risen due to displacement of people caused by the conflict. With famine spreading, 66% of the population in South Sudan is living on less than about $2 a day, up from 50.6% in 2009, according to the World Bank. About 80% of the population lives in rural areas, with agriculture, forestry and fishing providing the livelihood for a majority of the households. Much of rural sector activity is focused on low-input, low-output subsistence agriculture. South Sudan is burdened by considerable debt because of increased military spending and high levels of government corruption. Economic mismanagement is prevalent. Civil servants, including police and the military, are not paid on time, creating incentives to engage in looting and banditry. South Sudan has received more than $11 billion in foreign aid since 2005, largely from the US, the UK, and the EU. Inflation peaked at over 800% per year in October 2016 but dropped to 118% in 2017. The government has funded its expenditures by borrowing from the central bank and foreign sources, using forward sales of oil as collateral. The central bank’s decision to adopt a managed floating exchange rate regime in December 2015 triggered a 97% depreciation of the currency and spawned a growing black market. Long-term challenges include rooting out public sector corruption, improving agricultural productivity, alleviating poverty and unemployment, improving fiscal transparency - particularly in regard to oil revenues, taming inflation, improving government revenues, and creating a rules-based business environment.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.01 billion (2017 est.) $21.1 billion (2016 est.) $24.52 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $3.06 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -5.2% (2017 est.) -13.9% (2016 est.) -0.2% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,600 (2017 est.) $1,700 (2016 est.) $2,100 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 3.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 18.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 7.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 34.9% (2011 est.) government consumption: 17.1% (2011 est.) investment in fixed capital: 10.4% (2011 est.) exports of goods and services: 64.9% (2011 est.) imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2011 est.)
Agriculture - products: sorghum, maize, rice, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, mangoes, papayas, bananas, sweet potatoes, sunflower seeds, cotton, sesame seeds, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, peanuts; cattle, sheep
Industries:
Labor force:
Population below poverty line: 66% (2015 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46 (2010 est.)
Budget: revenues: 259.6 million (FY2017/18 est.)
expenditures: 298.6 million (FY2017/18 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 8.5% (of GDP) (FY2017/18 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1.3% (of GDP) (FY2017/18 est.)
Public debt: 62.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 86.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 187.9% (2017 est.) 379.8% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$154 million (2017 est.) $39 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $1.13 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Imports: $3.795 billion (2016 est.) $3.795 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $73 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Exchange rates: South Sudanese pounds (SSP) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 412.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 391.8 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 80,400 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 150,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 147,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 8,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,160 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 63.71 billion cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.224 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 1,511,529
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: one of the least developed telecommunications and Internet systems in the world; domestic mobile providers are waiting for a political settlement and the return of social stability in order to expand their networks; the few carriers in the market have reduced the areas in which they offer service, not expanded them; the government shut down the largest cellphone carrier, Vivacell, in March 2018, stranding 1.4 million customers over a disputed service fee arrangement (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 0 total subscriptions, mobile-cellular 12 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 211 (2017)
Broadcast media: a single TV channel and a radio station are controlled by the government; several community and commercial FM stations are operational, mostly sponsored by outside aid donors; some foreign radio broadcasts are available (2019)
Internet country code: .ss
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 Transportation
Airports: 85 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 3
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 82
(2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 35 (2013)
under 914 m: 34 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Railways: total 248 km
(2018)

note: a narrow gauge, single-track railroad between Babonosa (Sudan) and Wau, the only existing rail system, was repaired in 2010 with $250 million in UN funds, but is not currently operational
Roadways: total 7,000 km
(2012)

note: most of the road network is unpaved and much of it is in disrepair; a 192-km paved road between the capital, Juba, and Nimule on the Ugandan border was constructed with USAID funds in 2012
Waterways: see entry for Sudan
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 Military
Military branches: South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF): ground force, navy, air force and air defense units (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service; the Government of South Sudan signed agreements in March 2012 and August 2015 that included the demobilization of all child soldiers within the armed forces and opposition, but the recruitment of child soldiers by the warring parties continues; as of the end of 2018, UNICEF estimates that more than 19,000 child soldiers had been used in the country's civil war since it began in December 2013 (2018)
Military expenditures: 10.93% of GDP (2015) 9.77% of GDP (2014) 7.41% of GDP (2013) 9.53% of GDP (2012) 5.91% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan; periodic violent skirmishes with South Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; the boundary that separates Kenya and South Sudan's sovereignty is unclear in the "Ilemi Triangle," which Kenya has administered since colonial times
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 275,165 (Sudan) (refugees and asylum seekers), 15,568 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019) IDPs: 1.83 million (alleged coup attempt and ethnic conflict beginning in December 2013; information is lacking on those displaced in earlier years by: fighting in Abyei between the Sudanese Armed Forces and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) in May 2011; clashes between the SPLA and dissident militia groups in South Sudan; inter-ethnic conflicts over resources and cattle; attacks from the Lord's Resistance Army; floods and drought) (2019)
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