Senegal Population: 15,020,945

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 History
The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several attempts at reaching a comprehensive peace agreement have failed to resolve the conflict but, despite sporadic incidents of violence, an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by the Socialist Party of Senegal, first under President Léopold Sédar SENGHOR, and then President Abdou DIOUF, for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was re-elected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents - the change did not apply to SALL's first term. SALL won his bid for re-election in February 2019; his term will end in 2024. A month after the election, the National Assembly voted to abolish the office of the prime minister. Opposition organizations and civil society have criticized the decision as a further concentration of power in the executive branch at the expense of the legislative and judicial branches.

 Geography
    Westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
Geographic coordinates: 14 00 N, 14 00 W
Area: total: 196,722 sq km
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than South Dakota; slightly larger than twice the size of Indiana
Land Boundaries: total: 2,684 km border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
Coastline: 531 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore
Land use: agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.) forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
Ethnic groups: Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
Languages: French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
Religions: Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
Population: 15,020,945 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.15% (male 3,106,942 /female 3,074,740)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 1,521,868 /female 1,531,484)
25-54 years: 31.45% (male 2,176,052 /female 2,547,566)
55-64 years: 4.05% (male 261,682 /female 347,374)
65 years and over: 3.02% (male 200,079 /female 253,158) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 85.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 79.8 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 19 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 19.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.36% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 32.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 47.2% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.978 million DAKAR (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.9 years (2017 est.) note: median age at first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 48 deaths/1,000 live births male: 53.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 42.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.5 years male: 60.4 years
female: 64.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.8% (2017)
Physicians density: 0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 67.3% of population
total: 78.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 32.7% of population
total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 65.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 33.8% of population (2015 est.)
total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 66.2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 43,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.8% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.4% (2017)
Education expenditures: 6.2% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2017 est.)
total population: 51.9%
male: 64.8%
female: 39.8% (2017 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: 9 years female: 9 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 8.1% male: 7.4% female: 8.9% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: the Atlantic coast trading settlement of Ndakaaru came to be called "Dakar" by French colonialists
Administrative divisions: 14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
Constitution: history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2019 (2019)
Legal system: civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

head of government: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single renewable 5-year term; election last held on 24 February 2019 (next to be held in February 2024)

election results: Macky SALL elected president in first round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 58.3%, Idrissa SECK (Rewmi) 20.5%, Ousmane SONKO (PASTEF) 15.7%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblée Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)

election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9; composition - men 96, women 69, percent of women 41.8%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the court president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members, including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Superior Council of the Magistrates, a body chaired by the president and minister of justice; judge tenure varies, with mandatory retirement either at 65 or 68 years; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker; judges serve 6-year terms, with renewal of 2 members every 2 years

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL] Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE] Alliance for Citizenship and Labor or ACT [Abdoul MBAYE] And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox] Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, BGC, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, and UNP) Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP] Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL] Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Abdoulaye BATHILY] Dare the Future movement [Aissata Tall SALL] Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE] Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS] General Alliance for the Interests of the Republic or AGIR [Thierno BOCOUM] Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU] Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM] Madicke 2019 coalition [Madicke NIANG] National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE] Only Senegal movement [Pierre Goudiaby ATEPA] Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE] Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL] Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE] Patriots of Senegal for Ethics, Work and Fraternity or (PASTEF) [Ousmane SONKO] Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK] Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE] Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG] Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion;
national colors: green, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Momar DIOP (since 22 June 2018)
chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
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 Economy
Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall. President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan. Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018. The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $54.8 billion (2017 est.) $51.15 billion (2016 est.) $48.15 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $21.11 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.2% (2017 est.) 6.2% (2016 est.) 6.4% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,500 (2017 est.) $3,300 (2016 est.) $3,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 21.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.) government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.) industry: 24.3% (2017 est.) services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
Industries: agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 6.966 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 77.5%
industry: 22.5% industry and
services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate: 48% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line: 46.7% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.3 (2011)
Budget: revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 48.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2017 est.) 0.8% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.547 billion (2017 est.) -$769 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $2.362 billion (2017 est.) $2.498 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
Exports - partners: Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
Imports: $5.217 billion (2017 est.) $4.966 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
Imports - partners: France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 617.4 (2017 est.) 593.01 (2016 est.) 593.01 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 977,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 15,758,366
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system; mobile penetration reached 108% in March 2019; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% (97.2%) Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services (2018)

domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 107 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Broadcast media: state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2019)
Internet country code: .sn
Internet users: total: 3,675,209
percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 20 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 9
(2017) over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 11
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)
Railways: total 906 km
(713 km operational in 2017) (2017)
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
Roadways: total 16,665 km
(2017) paved: 6,126 km (includes 241 km of expressways) (2017)
unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
Waterways: 1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 28

by type: general cargo 4, oil tanker 1, other 23 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Dakar
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 Military
Military branches: Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.38% of GDP (2019 est.) 1.44% of GDP (2018) 1.46% of GDP (2017) 1.73% of GDP (2016) 1.58% of GDP (2015)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 14,120 (Mauritania) (2019) IDPs: 18,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2017)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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