Qatar Population: 2,363,569

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 History
Ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar within the last 60 years transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. Former Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa Al Thani, who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995, ushered in wide-sweeping political and media reforms, unprecedented economic investment, and a growing Qatari regional leadership role, in part through the creation of the pan-Arab satellite news network Al-Jazeera and Qatar's mediation of some regional conflicts. In the 2000s, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia and by 2007 had attained the highest per capita income in the world. Qatar did not experience domestic unrest or violence like that seen in other Near Eastern and North African countries in 2011, due in part to its immense wealth. In mid-2013, HAMAD peacefully abdicated, transferring power to his son, the current Amir TAMIM bin Hamad. TAMIM is popular with the Qatari public, having prioritized improving the domestic welfare of Qataris, including establishing advanced healthcare and education systems and expanding the country's infrastructure in anticipation of Doha's hosting of the 2022 World Cup. Recently, Qatar’s relationships with its neighbors have been tense. Following the outbreak of regional unrest in 2011, Doha prided itself on its support for many popular revolutions, particularly in Libya and Syria. This stance was to the detriment of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which temporarily recalled their respective ambassadors from Doha in March 2014. TAMIM later oversaw a warming of Qatar’s relations with Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE in November 2014 following Kuwaiti mediation and signing of the Riyadh Agreement. This reconciliation, however, was short-lived. In June 2017, Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE (the "Quartet") cut diplomatic and economic ties with Qatar in response to alleged violations of the agreement, among other complaints. This impasse continues.

 Geography
    The peninsula occupies a strategic location in the central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
Location: Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates: 25 30 N, 51 15 E
Area: total: 11,586 sq km
land: 11,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: almost twice the size of Delaware; slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 87 km border countries (1): Saudi Arabia 87 km
Coastline: 563 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
contiguous zone: 24 nm
Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert
Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas
Land use: agricultural land: 5.6% (2011 est.) arable land: 1.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0.2% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 4.3% (2011 est.) forest: 0% (2011 est.)
other: 94.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 130 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Current Environment Issues: air, land, and water pollution are significant environmental issues; limited natural freshwater resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities; other issues include conservation of oil supplies and preservation of the natural wildlife heritage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groups: non-Qatari 88.4%, Qatari 11.6% (2015 est.)
Languages: Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Religions: Muslim 67.7%, Christian 13.8%, Hindu 13.8%, Buddhist 3.1%, folk religion (2010 est.)
Population: 2,363,569 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 12.7% (male 151,888 /female 148,186)
15-24 years: 12.12% (male 205,242 /female 81,297)
25-54 years: 70.67% (male 1,391,192 /female 279,256)
55-64 years: 3.44% (male 62,683 /female 18,731)
65 years and over: 1.06% (male 16,295 /female 8,799) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 17.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 16.3 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 1.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 78.1 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 33.4 years
male: 34.6 years
female: 28.2 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.95% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 9.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 1.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 11.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 99.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.41% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 633,000 DOHA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 2.52 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 4.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 3.35 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.85 male(s)/female
total population: 3.41 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 13 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 6.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79 years male: 76.9 years
female: 81.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 37.5% (2012)
Physicians density: 2.78 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 1.2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 98% of population (2015 est.)
total: 98% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 2% of population (2015 est.)
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: <500 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <100 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 35.1% (2016)
Education expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 97.3%
male: 97.4%
female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 11 years female: 14 years (2017)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 0.5% male: 0.2% female: 2% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
etymology: the origin of the name is uncertain, but it dates back at least 2,000 years since a term "Catharrei" was used to describe the inhabitants of the peninsula by Pliny the Elder (1st century A.D.), and a "Catara" peninsula is depicted on a map by Ptolemy (2nd century A.D.) note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation is gattar or cottar
Government type: absolute monarchy
Capital: name: Doha
geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
etymology: derives from the Arabic term "dohat," meaning "roundness," and refers to the small rounded bays along the area's coastline
Administrative divisions: 8 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Khawr wa adh Dhakhirah, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Ash Shamal, Ash Shihaniyah, Az Za'ayin, Umm Salal
Independence: 3 September 1971 (from the UK)
National holiday: National Day, 18 December (1878), anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne; Independence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitution: history: previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005 amendments: proposed by the Amir or by one-third of Advisory Council members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Advisory Council members and approval and promulgation by the emir; articles pertaining to the rule of state and its inheritance, functions of the emir, and citizen rights and liberties cannot be amended (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law and Islamic law (in family and personal matters)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Amir TAMIM bin Hamad Al Thani (since 25 June 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Nasir bin Khalifa Al Thani (since 26 June 2013); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs KHALID bin Mohamed AL Attiyah (since 14 November 2017); Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs MOHAMED bin Abdulrahman Al Thani (since 14 November 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the amir elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the amir
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (45 seats; 30 members directly elected by popular vote for 4-year re-electable terms; 15 members appointed by the monarch to serve until resignation or until relieved; note - legislative drafting authority rests with the Council of Ministers and is reviewed by the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura

elections: last on 17 June 2016 (next in 2019); note - in 2016, the amir extended the Advisory Council's current term an additional 3 years

election results: NA; composition - men 41, women 4, percent of women 8.9%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court or Court of Cassation (consists of the court president and several judges); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of the chief justice and 6 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body consisting of judiciary heads appointed by the Amir; judges appointed for 3-year renewable terms; Supreme Constitutional Court members nominated by the Supreme Judiciary Council and appointed by the monarch; term of appointment NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; Courts of Justice; Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Center, established in 2009, provides dispute resolution services for institutions and bodies in Qatar, as well as internationally
Political parties and leaders: political parties are banned
International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CD, CICA (observer), EITI (implementing country), FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): a maroon field surmounted by a white serrated band with nine white points;
national colors: maroon, white
National anthem: name: "Al-Salam Al-Amiri" (The Amiri Salute)
lyrics/music: Sheikh MUBARAK bin Saif al-Thani/Abdul Aziz Nasser OBAIDAN

note: adopted 1996; anthem first performed that year at a meeting of the Gulf Cooperative Council hosted by Qatar
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador MISHAL bin Hamad bin Muhammad Al Thani (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0682
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires William GRANT (since 1 August 2018)
embassy: 22 February Street, Al Luqta District, P. O. Box 2399, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 4496-6000
FAX: [974] 4488-4298
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 Economy
Qatar’s oil and natural gas resources are the country’s main economic engine and government revenue source, driving Qatar’s high economic growth and per capita income levels, robust state spending on public entitlements, and booming construction spending, particularly as Qatar prepares to host the World Cup in 2022. Although the government has maintained high capital spending levels for ongoing infrastructure projects, low oil and natural gas prices in recent years have led the Qatari Government to tighten some spending to help stem its budget deficit. Qatar’s reliance on oil and natural gas is likely to persist for the foreseeable future. Proved natural gas reserves exceed 25 trillion cubic meters - 13% of the world total and, among countries, third largest in the world. Proved oil reserves exceed 25 billion barrels, allowing production to continue at current levels for about 56 years. Despite the dominance of oil and natural gas, Qatar has made significant gains in strengthening non-oil sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, and financial services, leading non-oil GDP to steadily rise in recent years to just over half the total. Following trade restriction imposed by Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt in 2017, Qatar established new trade routes with other countries to maintain access to imports.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $339.5 billion (2017 est.) $334.2 billion (2016 est.) $327.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $166.9 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.6% (2017 est.) 2.1% (2016 est.) 3.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $124,100 (2017 est.) $127,700 (2016 est.) $134,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 50.2% of GDP (2017 est.) 42.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 47.4% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 24.6% (2017 est.) government consumption: 17% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 43.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 1.5% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 51% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -37.3% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0.2% (2017 est.) industry: 50.3% (2017 est.) services: 49.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
Industries: liquefied natural gas, crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizer, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 1.953 million (2017 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.9% (2017 est.) 11.1% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 35.9% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41.1 (2007)
Budget: revenues: 44.1 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 53.82 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -5.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 53.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 46.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2017 est.) 2.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $6.426 billion (2017 est.) -$8.27 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $67.5 billion (2017 est.) $57.25 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
Exports - partners: Japan 17.3%, South Korea 16%, India 12.6%, China 11.2%, Singapore 8.2%, UAE 6.4% (2017)
Imports: $30.77 billion (2017 est.) $31.93 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 10.9%, US 8.9%, UAE 8.5%, Germany 8.1%, UK 5.5%, India 5.4%, Japan 5.3%, Italy 4.3% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $15.01 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $31.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $167.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $157.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $36.29 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $35.31 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $59.33 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $57.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $142.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $185.9 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $152.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar - 3.64 (2017 est.) 3.64 (2016 est.) 3.64 (2015 est.) 3.64 (2014 est.) 3.64 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 39.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 37.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 8.796 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.5 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.15 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 25.24 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 273,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 277,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 485,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 12,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 166.4 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 39.9 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 126.5 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 24.07 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 114.2 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 3,913,809
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 169 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system centered in Doha; notable efforts to deploy 5G wireless technology; steady LTE networks; one of the most connected markets in the Middle East with broadband penetration; ADSL, Fibre-to-the-Home (FttP), wireless and mobile services (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100  and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 169 telephones per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es'hailSat 1 and 2
Broadcast media: TV and radio broadcast licensing and access to local media markets are state controlled; home of the satellite TV channel Al-Jazeera, which was originally owned and financed by the Qatari government but has evolved to independent corporate status; Al-Jazeera claims editorial independence in broadcasting; local radio transmissions include state, private, and international broadcasters on FM frequencies in Doha; in August 2013, Qatar's satellite company Es'hailSat launched its first communications satellite Es'hail 1 (manufactured in the US), which entered commercial service in December 2013 to provide improved television broadcasting capability and expand availability of voice and Internet; Es'hailSat launched its second commercial satellite in 2018 with aid of SpaceX (2019)
Internet country code: .qa
Internet users: total: 2,129,360
percent of population: 94.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 6 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 4
(2017) over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2
(2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: 288 km condensate, 221 km condensate/gas, 2383 km gas, 90 km liquid petroleum gas, 745 km oil, 103 km refined products (2013)
Roadways: total 7,039 km
(2016)
Merchant marine: total 140

by type: bulk carrier 10, container ship 5, general cargo 6, oil tanker 7, other 112 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Doha, Musay'id, Ra's Laffan LNG terminal(s) (export): Ras Laffan
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 Military
Military branches: Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF) (2019)
Military service age and obligation: conscription for males aged 18-35; compulsory service times range from 4 months to up to a year, depending on the cadets educational and professional circumstances; women are permitted to serve in the armed forces, including as uniformed officers and pilots (2019)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,200 (2018)
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