Malaysia Population: 30,949,962

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 History
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, Great Britain established colonies and protectorates in the area of current Malaysia; these were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. In 1948, the British-ruled territories on the Malay Peninsula except Singapore formed the Federation of Malaya, which became independent in 1957. Malaysia was formed in 1963 when the former British colonies of Singapore, as well as Sabah and Sarawak on the northern coast of Borneo, joined the Federation. The first several years of the country's independence were marred by a communist insurgency, Indonesian confrontation with Malaysia, Philippine claims to Sabah, and Singapore's withdrawal in 1965. During the 22-year term of Prime Minister MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (1981-2003), Malaysia was successful in diversifying its economy from dependence on exports of raw materials to the development of manufacturing, services, and tourism. Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Razak (in office since April 2009) has continued these pro-business policies.

 Geography
Strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea
Location: Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 2 30 N, 112 30 E
Area: total: 329,847 sq km
land: 328,657 sq km
water: 1,190 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 2,742 km border countries (3): Brunei 266 km, Indonesia 1,881 km, Thailand 595 km
Coastline: 4,675 km (Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; specified boundary in the South China Sea
Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons
Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use: agricultural land: 23.2% arable land 2.9%; permanent crops 19.4%; permanent pasture 0.9% forest: 62%
other: 14.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 3,800 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding; landslides; forest fires
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation; smoke/haze from Indonesian forest fires
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Malaysian(s)
adjective: Malaysian
Ethnic groups: Malay 50.1%, Chinese 22.6%, indigenous 11.8%, Indian 6.7%, other 0.7%, non-citizens 8.2% (2010 est.)
Languages: Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai note: in East Malaysia there are several indigenous languages; most widely spoken are Iban and Kadazan
Religions: Muslim (official) 61.3%, Buddhist 19.8%, Christian 9.2%, Hindu 6.3%, Confucianism, Taoism, other traditional Chinese religions 1.3%, other 0.4%, none 0.8%, unspecified 1% (2010 est.)
Population: 30,949,962 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.16% (male 4,484,188/female 4,231,557)
15-24 years: 16.86% (male 2,647,105/female 2,571,883)
25-54 years: 41.06% (male 6,430,455/female 6,276,427)
55-64 years: 8.06% (male 1,266,415/female 1,227,690)
65 years and over: 5.86% (male 861,151/female 953,091) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 43.6%
youth dependency ratio: 35.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 8.4%
potential support ratio: 11.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 28.2 years
male: 28 years
female: 28.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.4% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 19.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 74.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KUALA LUMPUR (capital) 6.837 million; Johor Bahru 912,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 40 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75 years male: 72.2 years
female: 78 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 1.9 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 98.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 1.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96.1% of population
rural: 95.9% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 4.1% of population
total: 4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 91,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 12.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 12.9% (2006)
Education expenditures: 5% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.6%
male: 96.2%
female: 93.2% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: NA
female: NA (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.2% male: 9.3%
female: 11.6% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Malaysia
local long form: none
local short form: Malaysia
former: Federation of Malaya
etymology: the name means "Land of the Malays"
Government type: federal constitutional monarchy note: nominally headed by paramount ruler (commonly referred to as the king) and a bicameral Parliament consisting of a nonelected upper house and an elected lower house; all Peninsular Malaysian states have hereditary rulers (commonly referred to as sultans) except Melaka (Malacca) and Pulau Pinang (Penang); those two states along with Sabah and Sarawak in East Malaysia have governors appointed by government; powers of state governments are limited by federal constitution; under terms of federation, Sabah and Sarawak retain certain constitutional prerogatives (e.g., right to maintain their own immigration controls)
Capital: name: Kuala Lumpur; note - nearby Putrajaya is referred to as a federal government administrative center but not the capital; Parliament meets in Kuala Lumpur
geographic coordinates: 3 10 N, 101 42 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu; and 1 federal territory (Wilayah Persekutuan) with 3 components, Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, and Putrajaya
Independence: 31 August 1957 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day 31 August (1957) (independence of Malaya); Malaysia Day 16 September (1963) (formation of Malaysia)
Constitution: previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2010 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Court at request of supreme head of the federation
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King MUHAMMAD V (formerly known as Tuanku Muhammad Faris Petra) (selected on 14 October 2016; installed on 13 December 2016); the position of the king is primarily ceremonial but he is the final arbiter on the appointment of the prime minister

head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (since 3 April 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad ZAHID Hamidi (since 29 July 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among members of Parliament with the consent of the king elections/appointments: king elected by and from the hereditary rulers of 9 states for a 5-year term; election is on a rotational basis among rulers of the 9 states; election last held on 14 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister designated from among members of the House of Representatives; following legislative elections, the leader who commands support of the majority of members in the House becomes prime minister

election results: Mohamed NAJIB bin Abdul Najib Razak (UMNO) sworn in as prime minister for second term on 3 April 2009
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlimen consists of the Senate or Dewan Negara (70 seats; 44 members appointed by the king and 26 indirectly elected by 13 state legislatures; members serve 3-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Dewan Rakyat (222 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held on 5 May 2013 (next to be held by May 2018)

election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - BN 47.4%, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 50.9%, other 1.7%; seats by party/coalition - BN 133, People's Alliance (DAP, PAS, PKR) 89 note: seats by party/coalition as of October 2016 - BN 132, PH 72 (DAP 37, PKR 28, AMANAH 6, PPBM 1), PAS 14, WARISAN 2, PSM 1, independent 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Federal Court (consists of the chief justice, president of the Court of Appeal, chief justice of the High Court of Malaya, chief judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak and 7 judges); note - Malaysia has a dual judicial hierarchy of civil and religious (sharia) courts judge selection and term of office: Federal Court justices appointed by the monarch on advice of the prime minister; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Sessions Court; Magistrates' Court
Political parties and leaders: National Front (Barisan Nasional) or BN:: Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia Party or GERAKAN [MAH Siew Keong] Liberal Democratic Party (Parti Liberal Demokratik - Sabah) or LDP [TEO Chee Kang] Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan China Malaysia) or MCA [LIOW Tiong Lai] Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Malaysia) or MIC [S. SUBRAMANIAM] Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah or PBRS [Joseph KURUP] Parti Bersatu Sabah or PBS [Joseph PAIRIN Kitingan] Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu or PBB [Adenan SATEM] Parti Rakyat Sarawak or PRS [James MASING] Sarawak Progressive Democratic Party or SPDP [TIONG King Sing] Sarawak United People's Party (Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sarawak) or SUPP [Dr. SIM Kui Hian] United Malays National Organization or UMNO [NAJIB bin Abdul Razak] United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organization (Pertubuhan Pasko Momogun Kadazan Dusun Bersatu) or UPKO [Wilfred Madius TANGAU] People's Progressive Party (Parti Progresif Penduduk Malaysia) or PPP [M. Kayveas] Coalition of Hope (Pakatan Harapan) or PH:: Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik) or DAP [TAN Kok Wai, Acting National Chairman] National Trust Party (Parti Amanah Negara) or Amanah [Mohamad SABU] People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat) or PKR [WAN AZIZAH Wan Ismail] Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia or PPBM [MAHATHIR Mohamad] Other:: Islamic Party of Malaysia (Parti Islam se Malaysia) or PAS [Abdul HADI Awang] Sabah Heritage Party or WARISAN [Shafie APDAL] Socialist Party of Malaysia (Parti Sosialis Malaysia) or PSM [Mohd Nasir HASHIM]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Bar Council BERSIH (electoral reform coalition) ISMA (Muslim NGO) PERKASA (defense of Malay rights) other: religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
International organization participation: ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): tiger, hibiscus; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
National anthem: name: "Negaraku" (My Country)
lyrics/music: collective, led by Tunku ABDUL RAHMAN/Pierre Jean DE BERANGER

note: adopted 1957; full version only performed in the presence of the king; the tune, which was adopted from a popular French melody titled "La Rosalie," was originally the anthem of Perak, one of Malaysia's 13 states
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador AWANG ADEK Bin Hussin (since 21 May 2015)
chancery: 3516 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 572-9700
FAX: [1] (202) 572-9882
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Y. YUN (since 2 October 2013)
embassy: 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur
mailing address: US Embassy Kuala Lumpur, APO AP 96535-8152
telephone: [60] (3) 2168-5000
FAX: [60] (3) 2142-2207
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 Economy
Malaysia, a middle-income country, has transformed itself since the 1970s from a producer of raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Under current Prime Minister NAJIB, Malaysia is attempting to achieve high-income status by 2020 and to move farther up the value-added production chain by attracting investments in Islamic finance, high technology industries, biotechnology, and services. NAJIB's Economic Transformation Program is a series of projects and policy measures intended to accelerate the country's economic growth. The government has also taken steps to liberalize some services sub-sectors. Malaysia is vulnerable to a fall in world commodity prices or a general slowdown in global economic activity. The NAJIB administration is continuing efforts to boost domestic demand and reduce the economy's dependence on exports. Nevertheless, exports - particularly of electronics, oil and gas, palm oil, and rubber - remain a significant driver of the economy. Gross exports of goods and services constitute more than 80% of GDP. The oil and gas sector supplied about 29% of government revenue in 2014. As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia has previously profited from higher world energy prices, although the rising cost of domestic gasoline and diesel fuel, combined with sustained budget deficits, has forced Kuala Lumpur to begin to address fiscal shortfalls, through initial reductions in energy and sugar subsidies and the announcement of the 2015 implementation of a 6% goods and services tax. Falling global oil prices in the second half of 2014 have strained government finances, shrunk Malaysia’s current account surplus and put downward pressure on the ringgit. The government is trying to lessen its dependence on state oil producer Petronas. Bank Negara Malaysia (the central bank) maintains healthy foreign exchange reserves; a well-developed regulatory regime has limited Malaysia's exposure to riskier financial instruments and the global financial crisis. In order to attract increased investment, NAJIB raised possible revisions to the special economic and social preferences accorded to ethnic Malays under the New Economic Policy of 1970, but retreated in 2013 after he encountered significant opposition from Malay nationalists and other vested interests. In September 2013 NAJIB launched the new Bumiputra Economic Empowerment Program, policies that favor and advance the economic condition of ethnic Malays. Malaysia is a member of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement negotiations and, with the nine other ASEAN members, will form the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $863.8 billion (2016 est.) $828.2 billion (2015 est.) $789 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $302.7 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (2016 est.) 5% (2015 est.) 6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $27,200 (2016 est.) $26,600 (2015 est.) $25,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 27.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 28.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 29.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.2%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 66.5%
imports of goods and services: -60.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 55.2%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 66.5%
imports of goods and services: -60.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: Peninsular Malaysia - palm oil, rubber, cocoa, rice; Sabah - palm oil, subsistence crops; rubber, timber; Sarawak - palm oil, rubber, timber; pepper
Industries: Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, petroleum and natural gas, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, medical technology, electronics and semiconductors, timber processing; Sabah - logging, petroleum and natural gas production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum and natural gas production, logging
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 14.77 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11%
industry: 36%
services: 53% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.3% (2016 est.) 3.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 3.8% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 34.7% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.2 (2009) 49.2 (1997)
Budget: revenues: $52.66 billion
expenditures: $63.01 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 55.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 54.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: this figure is based on the amount of federal government debt; this includes Malaysian Treasury bills and other government securities, as well as loans raised externally and bonds and notes issued overseas; this figure excludes debt issued by non-financia
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2016 est.) 2.1% (2015 est.) note: approximately 30% of goods are price-controlled
Current account balance: $3.646 billion (2016 est.) $8.874 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $167.3 billion (2016 est.) $175.7 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: semiconductors and electronic equipment, palm oil, petroleum and liquefied natural gas, wood and wood products, palm oil, rubber, textiles, chemicals, solar panels
Exports - partners: Singapore 13.9%, China 13%, Japan 9.5%, US 9.4%, Thailand 5.7%, Hong Kong 4.7%, India 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $139.5 billion (2016 est.) $147.7 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: electronics, machinery, petroleum products, plastics, vehicles, iron and steel products, chemicals
Imports - partners: China 18.8%, Singapore 12%, US 8.1%, Japan 7.8%, Thailand 6.1%, South Korea 4.5%, Indonesia 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $97.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $95.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $187.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $186.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $154.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $144.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $155.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $145.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $383 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $459 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $500.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: ringgits (MYR) per US dollar - 4.079 (2016 est.) 3.91 (2015 est.) 3.91 (2014 est.) 3.27 (2013 est.) 3.09 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 139 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 131 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 12 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 23 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 30 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 11.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 654,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 299,100 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 180,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 3.6 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 544,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 745,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 243,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 410,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 65.42 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 35.18 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 34.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 4.63 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.183 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 208 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 44.111 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 145 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system featuring good intercity service on Peninsular Malaysia provided mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent

domestic: domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 160 per 100 persons

international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 TV networks with relays throughout the country, and the leading private commercial media group operates 4 TV stations with numerous relays throughout the country; satellite TV subscription service is available; state- (2012)
Internet country code: .my
Internet users: total: 21.684 million percent of population: 71.1% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 114 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 39
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 8 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 75

914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 69 (2013)
Heliports: 4 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 354 km; gas 6,439 km; liquid petroleum gas 155 km; oil 1,937 km; oil/gas/water 43 km; refined products 114 km; water 26 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,849 km
standard gauge: 59 km 1.435-m gauge (59 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,792 km 1.000-m gauge (339 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 144,403 km
(excludes local roads) paved: 116,169 km (includes 1,821 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,234 km (2010)
Waterways: 7,200 km (Peninsular Malaysia 3,200 km; Sabah 1,500 km; Sarawak 2,500 km) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 315

by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 83, carrier 2, chemical tanker 47, container 41, liquefied gas 34, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 86, roll on/roll off 2, vehicle carrier 5

foreign-owned: 26 (Denmark 1, Hong Kong 8, Japan 2, Russia 2, Singapore 13)

registered in other countries: 82 (Bahamas 13, India 1, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 6, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 11, Panama 12, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Singapore 27, Thailand 3, US 2, unknown 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bintulu, Johor Bahru, George Town (Penang), Port Kelang (Port Klang), Tanjung Pelepas container port(s) (TEUs): George Town (Penang)(1,202,180), Port Kelang (Port Klang)(9,435,403), Tanjung Pelepas (7,302,461) LNG terminal(s) (export): Bintulu (Sarawak) LNG terminal(s) (import): Sungei Udang
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 Military
Military branches: Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, ATM): Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia), Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia, TLDM), Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia, TUDM) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 17 years 6 months of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent and proof of age); mandatory retirement age 60; women serve in the Malaysian Armed Forces; no conscription (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (2014) 1.5% of GDP (2013) 1.55% of GDP (2012) 1.67% of GDP (2011) 1.55% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: while the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions over the Spratly Islands, it is not the legally binding "code of conduct" sought by some parties; Malaysia was not party to the March 2005 joint accord among the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam on conducting marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; disputes continue over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's land reclamation, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; land and maritime negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Muslim southern provinces prompts measures to close and monitor border with Malaysia to stem terrorist activities; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo; per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 88,637 (Burma) (2015)
stateless persons: 11,689 (2015); note - Malaysia's stateless population consists of Rohingya refugees from Burma, ethnic Indians, and the children of Filipino and Indonesian illegal migrants; Burma stripped the Rohingya of their nationality in 1982; Filipino and Indonesian children who have not have been registered for birth certificates by their parents or who received birth certificates stamped "foreigner" are not eligible to attend government schools; these children are vulnerable to statelessness should they not be able to apply to their parents' country of origin for passports
Illicit drugs: drug trafficking prosecuted vigorously, including enforcement of the death penalty; heroin still primary drug of abuse, but synthetic drug demand remains strong; continued ecstasy and methamphetamine producer for domestic users and, to a lesser extent, the regional drug market
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