Monaco Population: 30,727

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 History
The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized control in 1297 but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.

 Geography
    Second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban
Location: Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 24 E
Area: total: 2 sq km
land: 2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 6 km border countries (1): France 6 km
Coastline: 4.1 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm
Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky
Natural resources: none
Land use: agricultural land: 1% (2011 est.) arable land: 0% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.) forest: 0% (2011 est.)
other: 99% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: none
Current Environment Issues: no serious issues; actively monitors pollution levels in air and water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan
Ethnic groups: Monegasque 32.1%, French 19.9%, Italian 15.3%, British 5%, Belgian 2.3%, Swiss 2%, German 1.9%, Russian 1.8%, American 1.1%, Dutch 1.1%, Moroccan 1%, other 16.6% note: data represent population by country of birth French 24.9%, Monegasque 22.5%, Italian 21.9%, British 7.5%, Swiss 3.2%, Belgian 2.9%, German 2.4%, Russian 2%, Dutch 1.5%, Portuguese 1.4%, Greek 1.1%, American 1%, other 7.7% note: data represent population by nationality (2016 est.)
Languages: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Religions: Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%
Population: 30,727 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.) note: immigrants make up almost 55% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 10.27% (male 1,622 /female 1,533)
15-24 years: 9.39% (male 1,498 /female 1,387)
25-54 years: 32.15% (male 4,964 /female 4,916)
55-64 years: 15.04% (male 2,305 /female 2,315)
65 years and over: 33.15% (male 4,530 /female 5,657) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 53.8 years
male: 52.4 years
female: 55.3 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.3% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 6.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.51% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 1.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 89.4 years male: 85.5 years
female: 93.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 6.56 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Education expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (2016) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 26.6% male: 25.7% female: 27.9% (2016 est.)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco
etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco
Independence: 1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)
National holiday: National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)
Constitution: history: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962 amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by French legal tradition
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)

head of government: Minister of State Serge TELLE (since 1 February 2016)

cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 11 February 2018 (next to be held in February 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - Priorite Monaco 57.7%, Horizon Monaco 26.1%, Union Monegasque 16.2%; seats by party - Priorite Monaco 21, Horizon Monaco 2, Union Monegasque 1; composition - men 16, women 8, percent of women 33.3%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance
Political parties and leaders: Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION] Priorite Monaco [Stephane VALERI] Renaissance [SBM (public corporation)] Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]
International organization participation: CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s): red and white lozenges (diamond shapes);
national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT

note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US Ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco
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 Economy
Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, nonpolluting industries. The state retains monopolies in a number of sectors, including tobacco, the telephone network, and the postal service. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nearly 20% value-added tax, collects stamp duties, and companies face a 33% tax on profits unless they can show that three-quarters of profits are generated within the principality. Monaco was formally removed from the OECD's "grey list" of uncooperative tax jurisdictions in late 2009, but continues to face international pressure to abandon its banking secrecy laws and help combat tax evasion. In October 2014, Monaco officially became the 84th jurisdiction participating in the OECD’s Multilateral Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, an effort to combat offshore tax avoidance and evasion. Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to downturns in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco's GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis precipitated a sharp drop in tourism and retail activity and home sales. A modest recovery ensued in 2010 and intensified in 2013, with GDP growth of more than 9%, but Monaco's economic prospects remain uncertain.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.672 billion (2015 est.) $7.279 billion (2014 est.) $6.79 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2015 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $6.006 billion (2015 est.) (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.4% (2015 est.) 7.2% (2014 est.) 9.6% (2013 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $115,700 (2015 est.) $109,200 (2014 est.) $101,900 (2013 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 0% (2013) industry: 14% (2013) services: 86% (2013)
Agriculture - products: none
Industries: banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products
Industrial production growth rate: 6.8% (2015)
Labor force: 52,000 (2014 est.) note: includes all foreign workers
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0%
industry: 16.1%
services: 83.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2% (2012)
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 896.3 million (2011 est.)
expenditures: 953.6 million (2011 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -1% (of GDP) (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2010)
Exports: $964.6 million (2017 est.) $1.115 billion (2011) note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Exports - commodities:
Imports: $1.371 billion (2017 est.) $1.162 billion (2011 est.) note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France
Imports - commodities:
Debt - external:  NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 32,978
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market (2018)

domestic: fixed-line 153 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 108 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2016)
Broadcast media: TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; other radio stations include Riviera Radio and Radio Monaco
Internet country code: .mc
Internet users: total: 29,116
percent of population: 95.2% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Railways: Monaco has a single railway station but does not operate its own train service.  The French operator SNCF operates rail services in Monaco.
Roadways:
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Monaco
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France
Military branches: no regular military forces; Directorate of Public Security (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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