Israel Population: 8,424,904

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 History
The State of Israel was declared in 1948, after Britain withdrew from its mandate of Palestine, the UN proposed partitioning the area into Arab and Jewish states, and Arab armies that rejected the UN plan were defeated. Israel was admitted as a member of the UN in 1949 and saw rapid population growth, primarily due to migration from Europe and the Middle East, over the following years. Israel fought wars against its Arab neighbors in 1967 and 1973, followed by peace treaties with Egypt in 1979 and Jordan in 1994. Israel and Palestinian officials signed a number of interim agreements in the 1990s that created an interim period of Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which Israel occupied in 1967. The most recent effort to negotiate final status issues took place in 2013-2014. Immigration to Israel continues, with 28,600 new immigrants, mostly Jewish, in 2016. The Israeli economy has undergone a dramatic transformation in the last 25 years, led by cutting-edge, high-tech sectors. Offshore gas discoveries in the Mediterranean, most notably in the Tamar and Leviathan gas fields, place Israel at the center of a potential regional natural gas market. However, longer-term structural issues such as low labor force participation among minority populations, low workforce productivity, high costs for housing and consumer staples, and a lack of competition, remain a concern for many Israelis and an important consideration for Israeli politicians. Prime Minister Benjamin NETANYAHU has led the Israeli Government since 2009; he formed the current center-right coalition following the 2015 elections, but must hold legislative elections no later than November 2019.

 Geography
    Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; the Dead Sea is the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lake Assal in Djibouti)
  •   the Malham Cave in Mount Sodom is the world's longest salt cave at 10 km (6 mi); its survey is not complete and its length will undoubtedly increase; Mount Sodom is actually a hill some 220 m (722 ft) high that is 80% salt (multiple salt layers covered by a veneer of rock)
  • in 2017, there were 422 settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories - 42 settlements in the Golan Heights, 380 sites in the occupied Palestinian territories to include 213 settlements and 132 outposts in the West Bank, and 35 settlements in East Jerusalem; there are no Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, as all were evacuated in 2005
Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon
Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E
Area: total: 21,937 sq km
land: 21,497 sq km
water: 440 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 1,065 km border countries (6): Egypt 206 km, Gaza Strip 59 km, Jordan 336 km (20 km are within the Dead Sea), Lebanon 107 km, Syria 79 km, West Bank 278 km
Coastline: 273 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas
Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley
Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand
Land use: agricultural land: 23.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 13.7% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 3.8% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 6.3% (2011 est.) forest: 7.1% (2011 est.)
other: 69.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes
Current Environment Issues: limited arable land and restricted natural freshwater resources; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Israeli(s)
adjective: Israeli
Ethnic groups: Jewish 74.4% (of which Israel-born 76.9%, Europe/America/Oceania-born 15.9%, Africa-born 4.6%, Asia-born 2.6%), Arab 20.9%, other 4.7% (2018 est.)
Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language)
Religions: Jewish 74.7%, Muslim 17.7%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.6%, other 4% (2016 est.)
Population: 8,424,904 (July 2017 est.) (includes populations of the Golan Heights or Golan Sub-District and also East Jerusalem, which was annexed by Israel after 1967) (July 2018 est.) note: approximately 22,000 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2016); approximately 201,000 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2014)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.26% (male 1,175,106 /female 1,121,309)
15-24 years: 15.58% (male 670,121 /female 642,155)
25-54 years: 37.19% (male 1,601,516 /female 1,531,849)
55-64 years: 8.42% (male 350,050 /female 359,578)
65 years and over: 11.55% (male 437,511 /female 535,709) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 64.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 45.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 18.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 30.1 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 30.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.49% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 17.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 92.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.64% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 4.011 million Tel Aviv-Yafo
1.135 million Haifa
907,000 JERUSALEM (proclaimed capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.6 years (2015 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.7 years male: 80.8 years
female: 84.7 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 3.22 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density: 3.1 beds/1,000 population (2013)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.1% (2016)
Education expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2011 est.)
total population: 97.8%
male: 98.7%
female: 96.8% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 15 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.3% male: 6.7% female: 7.8% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: State of Israel
conventional short form: Israel
local long form: Medinat Yisra'el
local short form: Yisra'el
etymology: named after the ancient Kingdom of Israel; according to Biblical tradition, the Jewish patriarch Jacob received the name "Israel" ("He who struggles with God") after he wrestled an entire night with an angel of the Lord; Jacob's 12 sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, who formed the Kingdom of Israel
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Jerusalem; note - the US recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in December 2017 without taking a position on the specific boundaries of Israeli sovereignty
geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, Friday before the last Sunday in March; ends the last Sunday in October
etymology: Jerusalem's settlement may date back to 2800 B.C.; it is named Urushalim in Egyptian texts of the 14th century B.C.; "uru-shalim" likely means "foundation of [by] the god Shalim", and derives from Hebrew/Semitic "yry", "to found or lay a cornerstone", and Shalim, the Canaanite god of dusk and the nether world; Shalim was associated with sunset and peace and the name is based on the same S-L-M root from which Semitic words for "peace" are derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew); this confluence has thus led to naming interpretations such as "The City of Peace" or "The Abode of Peace"
Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv
Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May
Constitution: history: no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws, and the Law of Return (as amended) amendments: proposed by Government of Israel ministers or by the Knesset; passage requires a majority vote of Knesset members and subject to Supreme Court judicial review; 11 of the 13 Basic Laws have been amended at least once, latest in 2018 (2018)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; 17 years of age for municipal elections
Executive branch: chief of state: President Reuben RIVLIN (since 27 July 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009, most recently reformed on 15 May 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Knesset for a 7-year term (limited to 1 term); election last held on 10 June 2014 (next to be held on 9 April 2019); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, tasks a Knesset member (usually the member of the largest party) with forming a government

election results: Reuven RIVLIN elected president in second round; Knesset vote - Reuven RIVLIN (Likud) 63, Meir SHEETRIT (The Movement) 53, other/invalid 4
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 April 2019 (next originally scheduled for 2023, but Knesset dissolved itself on 30 May 2019 and called for a new election on 17 September)

election results: percent of vote by party - Likud 30%, Blue and White 29.2%, Shas 6.7%, United Torah 5.8%, Hadash-Ta'al 5%, Labor Party 5%,Yisrael Beitenu 4.2%, United Right 4.2%, Meretz 3.3%, Kulanu 3.3%, United Arab List-Balad 3.3%; seats by party - Likud 36, Blue and White 35, Shas 8, United Torah 7, Hadash-Ta'al 6, Labor Party 6, Yisrael Beitenu 5, United Right 5, Kulanu 4, Meretz 4, United Arab List-Balad 4; composition - men 85, women 35, percent of women 29.2%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 14 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges selected by the Judicial Selection Committee, consisting of 3 Supreme Court judges, 2 Cabinet members including the Minister of Justice as chairman, 2 Knesset members, and 2 representatives from the Israel Bar Association; judges can serve up to mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court for Administrative Matters; district and magistrate courts; national and regional labor courts; special and religious courts
Political parties and leaders: Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA] Blue and White [Benny GANTZ, Yair LAPID] (electoral alliance includes Israel Resilience Party, Yesh Atid, Telem) Democratic Front for Peace and Equality or HADASH [Ayman ODEH] Israel Democratic Party or Yisrael Demokratit [Ehud BARAK, chairman] Israeli Labor Party [Avi GABBAY] Israel Resilience Party [Benny GANTZ) Jewish Home (HaBayit HaYehudi) [Rafi PERETZ, Chairman] Joint List [Ayman ODEH] (coalition includes Balad, HADASH, United Arab List, Ta'al)) Kulanu [Moshe KAHLON] Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU] Meretz [Tamar ZANDBERG] New Right [Ayelet SHAKED] (established December 2018) SHAS [Arye DERI] Ta'al (Arab Movement for Renewal) [Ahmad TIBI] Tekumah/National Union (Ichud Leumi) [Uri ARIEL] Telem or Tnua Leumit Mamiachtit [Moshe YA'ALON] The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI] Union of Right Winger Parties or United Right (alliance includes The Jewish Home, Tkuma, Otzma Yehudit) United Arab List [Masud GANAIM] United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN] (an alliance of three parties) [Eli YISHAI] Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID] Yisrael Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN]
International organization participation: BIS, BSEC (observer), CE (observer), CERN, CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Star of David (Magen David), menorah (seven-branched lampstand);
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Hatikvah" (The Hope)
lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN

note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Samuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song "Carul cu boi" (The Ox Driven Cart)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ron DERMER (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500
FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David M. FRIEDMAN (since 23 May 2017)
embassy: David Flusser St.14, Jerusalem, 9378322
telephone: [972] (2) 630-4000
FAX: NA consular agent: Haifa note: on 14 May 2018, the US Embassy relocated to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv, replacing the site of the Jerusalem Consulate General
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 Economy
Israel has a technologically advanced free market economy. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and pharmaceuticals are among its leading exports. Its major imports include crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are offset by tourism and other service exports, as well as significant foreign investment inflows. Between 2004 and 2013, growth averaged nearly 5% per year, led by exports. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals, following years of prudent fiscal policy and a resilient banking sector. Israel's economy also weathered the 2011 Arab Spring because strong trade ties outside the Middle East insulated the economy from spillover effects. Slowing domestic and international demand and decreased investment resulting from Israel’s uncertain security situation reduced GDP growth to an average of roughly 2.8% per year during the period 2014-17. Natural gas fields discovered off Israel's coast since 2009 have brightened Israel's energy security outlook. The Tamar and Leviathan fields were some of the world's largest offshore natural gas finds in the last decade. Political and regulatory issues have delayed the development of the massive Leviathan field, but production from Tamar provided a 0.8% boost to Israel's GDP in 2013 and a 0.3% boost in 2014. One of the most carbon intense OECD countries, Israel generates about 57% of its power from coal and only 2.6% from renewable sources. Income inequality and high housing and commodity prices continue to be a concern for many Israelis. Israel's income inequality and poverty rates are among the highest of OECD countries, and there is a broad perception among the public that a small number of "tycoons" have a cartel-like grip over the major parts of the economy. Government officials have called for reforms to boost the housing supply and to increase competition in the banking sector to address these public grievances. Despite calls for reforms, the restricted housing supply continues to impact younger Israelis seeking to purchase homes. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers, coupled with guaranteed prices and customs tariffs for farmers kept food prices high in 2016. Private consumption is expected to drive growth through 2018, with consumers benefitting from low inflation and a strong currency. In the long term, Israel faces structural issues including low labor participation rates for its fastest growing social segments - the ultraorthodox and Arab-Israeli communities. Also, Israel's progressive, globally competitive, knowledge-based technology sector employs only about 8% of the workforce, with the rest mostly employed in manufacturing and services - sectors which face downward wage pressures from global competition. Expenditures on educational institutions remain low compared to most other OECD countries with similar GDP per capita.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $317.1 billion (2017 est.) $307 billion (2016 est.) $295.3 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $350.7 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.3% (2017 est.) 4% (2016 est.) 2.6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $36,400 (2017 est.) $35,900 (2016 est.) $35,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 23.6% of GDP (2017 est.) 24.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 25% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 55.1% (2017 est.) government consumption: 22.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 20.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 28.9% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -27.5% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.4% (2017 est.) industry: 26.5% (2017 est.) services: 69.5% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products
Industries: high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, pharmaceuticals, construction, metal products, chemical products, plastics, cut diamonds, textiles, footwear
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 4.021 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 17.3%
services: 81.6% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.2% (2017 est.) 4.8% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 22% (2014 est.) (2014 est.)

note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.8 (2013) 39.2 (2008)
Budget: revenues: 93.11 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 100.2 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 60.9% of GDP (2017 est.) 62.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.2% (2017 est.) -0.5% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $10.12 billion (2017 est.) $11.94 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $58.67 billion (2017 est.) $56.17 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel
Exports - partners: US 28.8%, UK 8.2%, Hong Kong 7%, China 5.4%, Belgium 4.5% (2017)
Imports: $68.61 billion (2017 est.) $63.9 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods
Imports - partners: US 11.7%, China 9.5%, Switzerland 8%, Germany 6.8%, UK 6.2%, Belgium 5.9%, Netherlands 4.2%, Turkey 4.2%, Italy 4% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $113 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $95.45 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $88.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $87.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $129.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $107.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $100.3 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $98.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $243.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $200.5 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $203.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar - 3.606 (2017 est.) 3.8406 (2016 est.) 3.8406 (2015 est.) 3.8869 (2014 est.) 3.5779 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 63.09 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 5.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 17.59 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 95% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 5% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 390 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 231,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12.73 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 294,300 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 242,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 111,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 98,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 9.826 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 9.995 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 509.7 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 176 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 73.82 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 10.54 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East; mobile broadband 100% population penetration; cunsumers enjoy inexpensive 3G services; 4G cellular service; fixed broadband available to 99% of all households (2018)

domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide; fixed-line 39 per 100 and 127 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)

international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2018)
Broadcast media: state broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations
Internet country code: .il
Internet users: total: 6,521,539
percent of population: 79.8% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 47 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 29
(2017) over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (2017)
under 914 m: 5 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 18
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: 763 km gas, 442 km oil, 261 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 1,250 km
(2014) standard gauge: 1,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 18,566 km
(2011) paved: 18,566 km (includes 449 km of expressways) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 42

by type: container ship 5, general cargo 5, oil tanker 3, other 29 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa container port(s) (TEUs): Ashdod (1,443,000) (2016)
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 Military
Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Force (IN), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druze) military service; 17 years of age for voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 32 months for enlisted men and 24 months for enlisted women (varies based on military occupation), 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9-year service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), age 24 (women) (2015)
Military expenditures: 5.62% of GDP (2017) 5.64% of GDP (2016) 5.6% of GDP (2015) 5.86% of GDP (2014) 5.75% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-controlled (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 14,516 (Eritrea) (2018), 9,021 (Ukraine) (2019)
stateless persons: 42 (2018)
Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center
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