Honduras Population: 9,182,766

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 History
Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.

 Geography
    Has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Location: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W
Area: total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Tennessee
Land Boundaries: total: 1,575 km border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km
Coastline: 823 km (Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 28.8% (2011 est.) arable land: 9.1% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 4% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 15.7% (2011 est.) forest: 45.3% (2011 est.)
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Current Environment Issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Religions: Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 41%, atheist 1%, other 2%, none 9% (2014 est.)
Population: 9,182,766 (July 2018 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.37% (male 1,518,526 /female 1,453,891)
15-24 years: 20.88% (male 977,899 /female 939,490)
25-54 years: 37.07% (male 1,724,257 /female 1,679,694)
55-64 years: 5.27% (male 229,066 /female 255,169)
65 years and over: 4.41% (male 174,771 /female 230,003) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 59.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 52.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 7.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 14.2 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 23.3 years
male: 23 years
female: 23.7 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.56% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 57.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 2.75% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 1.363 million TEGUCIGALPA (capital)
851,000 San Pedro Sula (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.4 years (2011/12 est.) note: median age a first birth among women 25-29
Maternal mortality rate: 129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 18.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.3 years male: 69.6 years
female: 73 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.61 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.2% (2011/12)
Physicians density: 0.31 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 86.7% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 77.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 82.6% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 13.3% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 22.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 22,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 21.4% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7.1% (2012)
Education expenditures: 6% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 89%
male: 89%
female: 88.9% (2016 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 10 years male: 10 years female: 11 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.9% male: 5.6% female: 12.1% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
etymology: the name means "depths" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: history: several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982 amendments: proposed by the National Congress with at least two-thirds majority vote of the membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of Congress in its next annual session; constitutional articles such as the form of government, national sovereignty, the presidential term, and the procedure for amending the constitution cannot be amended; amended many times, last in 2015; note - the 2015 amendment struck down several constitutional articles on presidential term limits (2018)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Maria RIVERA, and Olga ALVARADO (since 26 January 2018); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Maria RIVERA, and Olga ALVARADO (since 26 January 2018)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term; election last held on 26 November 2017 (next to be held in November 2021); note - in 2015, the Constitutional Chamber of the Honduran Supreme Court struck down the constitutional provisions on presidential term limits

election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado reelected president; percent of vote Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 43%, Salvador NASRALLA (Alianza de Oposicion conta la Dictadura) 41.4%, Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano (PL) 14.7%, other .9%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 November 2017 (next to be held on 28 November 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 47.7%, LIBRE 23.4%, PL 20.3%, AP 3.1%, PINU 3.1%, DC 0.8%, PAC 0.8%, UD 0.8%; seats by party - PNH 61, LIBRE 30, PL 26, AP 4, PINU 4, DC 1, PAC 1, UD 1; composition - men 101, women 27, percent of women 21.1%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges, including the court president, and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, constitutional, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials and other government and non-government officials nominated by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace
Political parties and leaders: Alliance against the Dictatorship or Alianza de Oposicion conta la Dictadura [Salvador NASRALLA] (electoral coalition) Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Marlene ALVARENGA] Christian Democratic Party or DC [Lucas AGUILERA] Democratic Unification Party or UD [Alfonso DIAZ] Freedom and Refoundation Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales] Honduran Patriotic Alliance or AP [Romeo VASQUEZ Velasquez] Liberal Party or PL [Luis Orlando ZELAYA Medrano] National Party of Honduras or PNH [Reinaldo SANCHEZ Rivera] Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Guillermo VALLE]
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer;
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING

note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marlon Ramsses TABORA Munoz (since 24 April 2017)
chancery: Suite 700, 1250 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 966-7702
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Heide B. FULTON (since June 2017)
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Tegucigalpa M.D.C.
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
FAX: [504] 2236-9037
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 Economy
Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing. Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 15% of foreign direct investment is from US firms. The economy registered modest economic growth of 3.1%-4.0% from 2010 to 2017, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. In 2017, Honduras faced rising public debt, but its economy has performed better than expected due to low oil prices and improved investor confidence. Honduras signed a three-year standby arrangement with the IMF in December 2014, aimed at easing Honduras’s poor fiscal position.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $46.3 billion (2017 est.) $44.18 billion (2016 est.) $42.58 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $22.98 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2017 est.) 3.8% (2016 est.) 3.8% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,600 (2017 est.) $5,400 (2016 est.) $5,300 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 22.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 20.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 20.5% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 77.7% (2017 est.) government consumption: 13.8% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 23.1% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 43.6% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -58.9% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 14.2% (2017 est.) industry: 28.8% (2017 est.) services: 57% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster, sugar, oriental vegetables
Industries: sugar processing, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 3.735 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.6% (2017 est.) 6.3% (2016 est.) note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
Population below poverty line: 29.6% (2014)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.4% (2014)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.1 (2014) 45.7 (2009)
Budget: revenues: 4.658 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 5.283 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 39.5% of GDP (2017 est.) 38.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (2017 est.) 2.7% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$380 million (2017 est.) -$587 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $8.675 billion (2017 est.) $7.841 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
Exports - partners: US 34.5%, Germany 8.9%, Belgium 7.7%, El Salvador 7.3%, Netherlands 7.2%, Guatemala 5.2%, Nicaragua 4.8% (2017)
Imports: $11.32 billion (2017 est.) $10.56 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: US 40.3%, Guatemala 10.5%, China 8.5%, Mexico 6.2%, El Salvador 5.7%, Panama 4.4%, Costa Rica 4.2% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.708 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $3.814 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external: $8.625 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $7.852 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: n/a
Exchange rates: lempiras (HNL) per US dollar - 23.74 (2017 est.) 22.995 (2016 est.) 22.995 (2015 est.) 22.098 (2014 est.) 21.137 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 8.501 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 7.22 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 536 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 195 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.546 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 40% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 25% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 34% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 59,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 12,870 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 56,120 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 9.436 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 8,233,499
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 91 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership; demand for broadband increasing and some investment needed in network upgrades; mobile penetration below regional average (2018)

domestic: private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity 5 per 100; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 91 per 100 persons (2018)

international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System
Broadcast media: multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations
Internet country code: .hn
Internet users: total: 2,667,978
percent of population: 30% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 103 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 13
(2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
under 914 m: 3 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 90
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2013)
under 914 m: 73 (2013)
Railways: total 699 km
(2014)
narrow gauge: 164 km 1.067-m gauge (2014) 115 1.057-m gauge420 0.914-m gauge
Roadways: total 14,742 km
(2012) paved: 3,367 km (2012)
unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only) (2012)

note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry
Waterways: 465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 550

by type: container ship 1, general cargo 249, oil tanker 89, other 211 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela
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 Military
Military branches: Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2018)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2018)
Military expenditures: 1.59% of GDP (2016) 1.52% of GDP (2015) 1.62% of GDP (2014) 1.55% of GDP (2013) 1.15% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 190,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2016)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
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