Antigua and Barbuda Population: 93,581


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The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W
Area: total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km

note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 153 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
Land use: agricultural land: 20.5% arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 9.1% forest: 22.3%
other: 57.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1.3 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
Ethnic groups: black 87.3%, mixed 4.7%, hispanic 2.7%, white 1.6%, other 2.7%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official), Antiguan creole
Religions: Protestant 68.3% (Anglican 17.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.4%, Pentecostal 12.2%, Moravian 8.3%, Methodist 5.6%, Wesleyan Holiness 4.5%, Church of God 4.1%, Baptist 3.6%), Roman Catholic 8.2%, other 12.2%, unspecified 5.5%, none 5.9% (2011 est.)
Population: 93,581 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 23.36% (male 11,107/female 10,754)
15-24 years: 17% (male 7,918/female 7,992)
25-54 years: 42.31% (male 18,085/female 21,509)
55-64 years: 9.53% (male 4,021/female 4,894)
65 years and over: 7.8% (male 3,136/female 4,165) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.7%
youth dependency ratio: 35.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4%
potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 31.6 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 33.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.23% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 23.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.95% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 22,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.5 years male: 74.4 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population

urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 91.4% of population

urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 31% (2014)
Education expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 99%
male: 98.4%
female: 99.4% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2012)
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Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
etymology: "antiguo" is Spanish for "ancient" or "old"; the island was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1493 and, according to tradition, named by him after the church of Santa Maria la Antigua (Old Saint Mary's) in Seville; "barbuda" is Spanish for "bearded" and the adjective may refer to the alleged beards of the indigenous people or to the island's bearded-fig trees
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
Independence: 1 November 1981 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
Constitution: several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981); amended 2009, 2011 (2016)
Legal system: common law based on the English model
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Rodney WILLIAMS (since 14 August 2014)

head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 56.4% UPP 42%; seats by party - ALP 14, UPP 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 19 judges; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts
Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE] Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER] Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS] Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL] United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE] People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): fallow deer; national colors: red, white, blue, black, yellow
National anthem: name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS

note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sir Ronald SANDERS (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
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Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, the country's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009 and 2011. The country has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.171 billion (2016 est.) $2.128 billion (2015 est.) $2.084 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.303 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2016 est.) 2.2% (2015 est.) 4.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $24,100 (2016 est.) $23,900 (2015 est.) $23,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 14.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 13.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 10.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65%
government consumption: 16.9%
investment in fixed capital: 23.2%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.2%
imports of goods and services: -40.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 65%
government consumption: 16.9%
investment in fixed capital: 23.2%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.2%
imports of goods and services: -40.4% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 30,000 (1991)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
Unemployment rate: 11% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $279.1 million
expenditures: $301.7 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 89% of GDP (2012 est.) 130% of GDP (2010 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$122 million (2016 est.) -$129 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $61.7 million (2016 est.) $61 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
Imports: $482.1 million (2016 est.) $482.5 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
Debt - external: $441.2 million (31 December 2012) $458 million (June 2010)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2016 est.) 2.7 (2015 est.) 2.7 (2014 est.) 2.7 (2013 est.) 2.7 (2012 est.)
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Electricity - production: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 84,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 90.55 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 4,884 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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Cellular Phones in use: total: 126,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 136 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: good automatic telephone system

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 135 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; sate (2015)
Broadcast media: state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
Internet country code: .ag
Internet users: total: 60,000 percent of population: 65.2% (July 2015 est.)
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Airports: 3 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 1,170 km
paved: 386 km
unpaved: 784 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1,257

by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2

foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Saint John's
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Military branches: Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

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