Andorra Population: 85,708

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 History
The landlocked Principality of Andorra is one of the smallest states in Europe, nestled high in the Pyrenees between the French and Spanish borders. For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique coprincipality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Bishop of Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the introduction of a modern constitution; the co-princes remained as titular heads of state, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Andorra has become a popular tourist destination visited by approximately 8 million people each year drawn by the winter sports, summer climate, and duty-free shopping. Andorra has also become a wealthy international commercial center because of its mature banking sector and low taxes. As part of its effort to modernize its economy, Andorra has opened to foreign investment, and engaged in other reforms, such as advancing tax initiatives aimed at supporting a broader infrastructure. Although not a member of the EU, Andorra enjoys a special relationship with the bloc that is governed by various customs and cooperation agreements and uses the euro as its national currency.

 Geography
    Landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
Location: Southwestern Europe, Pyrenees mountains, on the border between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E
Area: total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 118 km border countries (2): France 55 km, Spain 63 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land use: agricultural land: 40% (2016 est.) arable land: 1.7% (2016 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2016 est.) permanent pasture: 38.3% (2016 est.) forest: 34% (2016 est.)
other: 26% (2016 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: avalanches
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groups: Andorran 48.8%, Spanish 25.1%, Portuguese 12%, French 4.4%, other 9.7% (2017 est.) note: data represent population by nationality
Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)
Population: 85,708 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 14.06% (male 6,197 /female 5,856)
15-24 years: 9.78% (male 4,344 /female 4,035)
25-54 years: 45.27% (male 19,813 /female 18,990)
55-64 years: 14.71% (male 6,674 /female 5,935)
65 years and over: 16.18% (male 7,047 /female 6,817) (2018 est.)
Median age: total: 44.9 years
male: 45.1 years
female: 44.8 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.01% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 7.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 88.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 23,000 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.9 years male: 80.7 years
female: 85.3 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 3.33 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density: 2.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
total: 100% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: n/a
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: n/a
HIV/AIDS - deaths: n/a
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.6% (2016)
Education expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (2017)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2016 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra
etymology: the origin of the country's name is obscure; the name may derive from the Arabic "ad-darra" meaning "the forest," a reference to its location as part of the Spanish March (defensive buffer zone) against the invading Moors in the 8th century
Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains its chiefs of state in the form of a co-principality; the two princes are the President of France and Bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain
Capital: name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: translates as "Andorra the Old" in Catalan
Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence: 1278 (formed under the joint sovereignty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgell)
National holiday: Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Constitution: history: drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993 amendments: proposed by the coprinces jointly or by the General Council; passage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the General Council, ratification in a referendum, and sanctioning by the coprinces (2019)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil and customary law with the influence of canon law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Co-prince Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Patrick STROZDA (since 14 May 2017); and Co-prince Archbishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Josep Maria MAURI (since 20 July 2012)

head of government: Head of Government (or Cap de Govern) Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (since 16 May 2019)

cabinet: Executive Council of 12 ministers designated by the head of government elections/appointments: head of government indirectly elected by the General Council (Andorran parliament), formally appointed by the coprinces for a 4-year term; election last held on 7 April 2019 (next to be held in April 2023); the leader of the majority party in the General Council is usually elected head of government

election results: Xaviar Espot ZAMORA (DA) elected head of government; percent of General Council vote - 60.7%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de les Valls (a minimum of 28 seats; 14 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies (parishes) by simple majority vote and 14 directly elected in a single national constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms); note - voters cast two separate ballots - one for a national list and one for a parish list

elections: last held on 7 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023)

election results: percent of vote by party - DA 35.1%, PS 30.6%, L'A 12.5%, Third Way/Lauredian Union 10.4%, other 22.4%; seats by party - DA 11, PS 7, L'A 4, Third Way/Lauredian Union 4, other 2; composition - men 14, women 14, percent of women 50%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de la Justicia d'Andorra (consists of the court president and 8 judges organized into civil, criminal, and administrative chambers); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 4 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and judges appointed by the Supreme Council of Justice, a 5-member judicial policy and administrative body appointed 1 each by the coprinces, 1 by the General Council, 1 by the executive council president, and 1 by the courts; judges serve 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the coprinces and 2 by the General Council; magistrates' appointments limited to 2 consecutive 8-year terms

subordinate courts: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts
Political parties and leaders: Democrats for Andorra or DA [Xaviar ESPOT ZAMORA] Social Democratic Party or PS [Vicenc ALFY FERRER] Liberals of Andorra or L'A [Jordi GALLARDO FERNANDEZ] Third Way/Lauredian Union [Josep PINTAT FORNE] Social Democracy and Progress or SDP [Victor NAUDI ZAMORA] United for the Progress of Andorra or UPA [Alfons CLAVERA ARIZTI] note: Andorra has several smaller parties at the parish level (one is Lauredian Union)
International organization participation: CE, FAO, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): red cow (breed unspecified);
national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)
lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric MARFANY BONS

note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elisenda VIVES BALMANA (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain);
mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain;
telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227;
FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
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 Economy
Andorra has a developed economy and a free market, with per capita income above the European average and above the level of its neighbors, Spain and France. The country has developed a sophisticated infrastructure including a one-of-a-kind micro-fiber-optic network for the entire country. Tourism, retail sales, and finance comprise more than three-quarters of GDP. Duty-free shopping for some products and the country’s summer and winter resorts attract millions of visitors annually. Andorra uses the euro and is effectively subject to the monetary policy of the European Central Bank. Andorra's comparative advantage as a tax haven eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened and the government eased bank secrecy laws under pressure from the EU and OECD. Agricultural production is limited - only about 5% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported, making the economy vulnerable to changes in fuel and food prices. The principal livestock is sheep. Manufacturing output and exports consist mainly of perfumes and cosmetic products, products of the printing industry, electrical machinery and equipment, clothing, tobacco products, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products. To provide incentives for growth and diversification in the economy, the Andorran government began sweeping economic reforms in 2006. The Parliament approved three laws to complement the first phase of economic openness: on companies (October 2007), on business accounting (December 2007), and on foreign investment (April 2008 and June 2012). From 2011 to 2015, the Parliament also approved direct taxes in the form of taxes on corporations, on individual incomes of residents and non-residents, and on capital gains, savings, and economic activities. These regulations aim to establish a transparent, modern, and internationally comparable regulatory framework, in order to attract foreign investment and businesses that offer higher value added.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.327 billion (2015 est.) $3.363 billion (2014 est.) $3.273 billion (2013 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $2.712 billion (2016 est.) (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.1% (2015 est.) 1.4% (2014 est.) -0.1% (2013 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $49,900 (2015 est.) $51,300 (2014 est.) $50,300 (2013 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 11.9% (2015 est.) industry: 33.6% (2015 est.) services: 54.5% (2015 est.)
Agriculture - products: small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, tobacco; sheep, cattle
Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), banking, timber, furniture
Industrial production growth rate: n/a
Labor force: 39,750 (2016)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.5%
industry: 4.4%
services: 95.1% (2015)
Unemployment rate: 3.7% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 1.872 billion (2016)
expenditures: 2.06 billion (2016)
Taxes and other revenues: 69% (of GDP) (2016) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -6.9% (of GDP) (2016)
Public debt: 41% of GDP (2014 est.) 41.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.9% (2015 est.) -0.1% (2014 est.)
Exports: $78.71 million (2015 est.) $79.57 million (2014 est.)
Exports - commodities: tobacco products, furniture
Imports: $1.257 billion (2015 est.) $1.264 billion (2014 est.)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, fuel, electricity
Debt - external: $0 (2016)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 99.48 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 221.6 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - exports: 6,000 kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - imports: 471.3 million kWh (2015 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 520,000 kW (2010 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 23% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 15% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2016)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2016) (2016)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2016) (2016)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (2016) (2016)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2016)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2016) (2016)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2016) (2016)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2016) (2016)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2016) (2016)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (2016)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 80,337
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; broadband Internet and LTE mobile lines for both consumer and enterprise customers available (2019)

domestic: 50 per 100 fixed-line, 45 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges (2019)

international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Broadcast media: 1 public TV station and 2 public radio stations; about 10 commercial radio stations; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain; upgraded to terrestrial digital TV broadcasting in 2007; roughly 25 international TV channels available (2019)
Internet country code: .ad
Internet users: total: 83,887
percent of population: 97.9% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Roadways: total 320 km
(2019)
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Corps of Andorra
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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